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Medicinal Plants And Herbs Pdf

medicinal plants and herbs pdf

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Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs.

Medicinal plants

Introduction and Importance of Medicinal Plants and Herbs. It is the use of plants for medicinal purposes, and the study of such uses. Now a days, herb refers to any part of the plant like fruit, seed, stem, bark, flower, leaf, stigma or a root, as well as a non-woody plant. These medicinal plants are also used as food, flavonoid, medicine or perfume and also in certain spiritual activities.

Plants have been used for medicinal purposes long before prehistoric period. Ancient Unani manuscripts Egyptian papyrus and Chinese writings described the use of herbs.

Evidence exist that Unani Hakims, Indian Vaids and European and Mediterranean cultures were using herbs for over years as medicine. Indigenous cultures such as Rome, Egypt, Iran, Africa and America used herbs in their healing rituals, while other developed traditional medical systems such as Unani, Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine in which herbal therapies were used systematically. Traditional systems of medicine continue to be widely practised on many accounts. Population rise, inadequate supply of drugs, prohibitive cost of treatments, side effects of several synthetic drugs and development of resistance to currently used drugs for infectious diseases have led to increased emphasis on the use of plant materials as a source of medicines for a wide variety of human ailments.

Among ancient civilisations, India has been known to be rich repository of medicinal plants. The forest in India is the principal repository of large number of medicinal and aromatic plants, which are largely collected as raw materials for manufacture of drugs and perfumery products. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Folk tribal medicines are the major systems of indigenous medicines. Among these systems, Ayurveda and Unani Medicine are most developed and widely practised in India.

Recently, WHO World Health Organization estimated that 80 percent of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some aspect of their primary health care needs. According to WHO, around 21, plant species have the potential for being used as medicinal plants.

As per data available over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for their health care needs. Thus, the economic importance of medicinal plants is much more to countries such as India than to rest of the world.

These countries provide two third of the plants used in modern system of medicine and the health care system of rural population depend on indigenous systems of medicine. Treatment with medicinal plants is considered very safe as there is no or minimal side effects. These remedies are in sync with nature, which is the biggest advantage. The golden fact is that, use of herbal treatments is independent of any age groups and the sexes.

The ancient scholars only believed that herbs are only solutions to cure a number of health related problems and diseases. They conducted thorough study about the same, experimented to arrive at accurate conclusions about the efficacy of different herbs that have medicinal value.

Most of the drugs, thus formulated, are free of side effects or reactions. This is the reason why herbal treatment is growing in popularity across the globe. These herbs that have medicinal quality provide rational means for the treatment of many internal diseases, which are otherwise considered difficult to cure. These are considered as home remedies in many parts of the country. It is known fact that lots of consumers are using Basil Tulsi for making medicines, black tea, in pooja and other activities in their day to day life.

In several parts of the world many herbs are used to honour their kings showing it as a symbol of luck. Now, after finding the role of herbs in medicine, lots of consumers started the plantation of tulsi and other medicinal plants in their home gardens. Medicinal plants are considered as a rich resources of ingredients which can be used in drug development either pharmacopoeial, non- pharmacopoeial or synthetic drugs.

A part from that, these plants play a critical role in the development of human cultures around the whole world. Moreover, some plants are considered as important source of nutrition and as a result of that they are recommended for their therapeutic values. Some of these plants include ginger, green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper and turmeric etc. Some plants and their derivatives are considered as important source for active ingredients which are used in aspirin and toothpaste etc.

Apart from the medicinal uses, herbs are also used in natural dye, pest control, food, perfume, tea and so on. Now a days medicinal herbs are important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing. Recipes for the treatment of common ailments such as diarrhoea, constipation, hypertension, low sperm count, dysentery and weak penile erection, piles, coated tongue, menstrual disorders, bronchial asthma, leucorrhoea and fevers are given by the traditional medicine practitioners very effectively.

Over the past two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of herbal medicine; however, there is still a significant lack of research data in this field.

As our lifestyle is now getting techno-savvy, we are moving away from nature. While we cannot escape from nature because we are part of nature. As herbs are natural products they are free from side effects, they are comparatively safe, eco-friendly and locally available. Traditionally there are lot of herbs used for the ailments related to different seasons. There is a need to promote them to save the human lives.

These herbal products are today are the symbol of safety in contrast to the synthetic drugs, that are regarded as unsafe to human being and environment. Although herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavouring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while.

However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security. You would need to login or signup to start a Discussion. Importance of some herbs with their medicinal values Herbs such as black pepper, cinnamon, myrrh, aloe, sandalwood, ginseng, red clover, burdock, bayberry, and safflower are used to heal wounds, sores and boils.

These herbs are easy to grow, look good, taste and smell amazing and many of them are magnets for bees and butterflies. Many herbs are used as blood purifiers to alter or change a long-standing condition by eliminating the metabolic toxins. These are also known as 'blood cleansers'. Certain herbs improve the immunity of the person, thereby reducing conditions such as fever. Some herbs are also having antibiotic properties. Turmeric is useful in inhibiting the growth of germs, harmful microbes and bacteria.

Turmeric is widely used as a home remedy to heal cut and wounds. To reduce fever and the production of heat caused by the condition, certain antipyretic herbs such as Chirayta , black pepper, sandal wood and safflower are recommended by traditional Indian medicine practitioners.

Sandalwood and Cinnamon are great astringents apart from being aromatic. Sandalwood is especially used in arresting the discharge of blood, mucus etc. Some herbs are used to neutralize the acid produced by the stomach. Herbs such as marshmallow root and leaf. They serve as antacids. The healthy gastric acid needed for proper digestion is retained by such herbs.

Indian sages were known to have remedies from plants which act against poisons from animals and snake bites. Herbs like Cardamom and Coriander are renowned for their appetizing qualities. Other aromatic herbs such as peppermint, cloves and turmeric add a pleasant aroma to the food, thereby increasing the taste of the meal. Some herbs like aloe, sandalwood, turmeric, sheetraj hindi and khare khasak are commonly used as antiseptic and are very high in their medicinal values. Ginger and cloves are used in certain cough syrups.

They are known for their expectorant property, which promotes the thinning and ejection of mucus from the lungs, trachea and bronchi. Eucalyptus, Cardamom, Wild cherry and cloves are also expectorants.

Therefore, they are used as cardiac stimulants. Certain medicinal herbs have disinfectant property, which destroys disease causing germs. They also inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes that cause communicable diseases. Herbal medicine practitioners recommend calmative herbs, which provide a soothing effect to the body. They are often used as sedatives. Certain aromatic plants such as Aloe, Golden seal, Barberry and Chirayata are used as mild tonics. The bitter taste of such plants reduces toxins in blood.

They are helpful in destroying infection as well. Certain herbs are used as stimulants to increase the activity of a system or an organ, for example herbs like Cayenne Lal Mirch, Myrrh, Camphor and Guggul. A wide variety of herbs including Giloe, Golden seal, Aloe and Barberry are used as tonics. They can also be nutritive and rejuvenate a healthy as well as diseased individual. Honey, turmeric, marshmallow and liquorice can effectively treat a fresh cut and wound.

They are termed as vulnerary herbs. Conclusion As our lifestyle is now getting techno-savvy, we are moving away from nature. References www. Discussion You would need to login or signup to start a Discussion. Write your comments.

List of plants used in herbalism

Medicinal plants , also called medicinal herbs , have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects , fungi , diseases , and herbivorous mammals. Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified. However, since a single plant contains widely diverse phytochemicals, the effects of using a whole plant as medicine are uncertain. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassessed by rigorous scientific research to define efficacy and safety. The earliest historical records of herbs are found from the Sumerian civilisation, where hundreds of medicinal plants including opium are listed on clay tablets. The Ebers Papyrus from ancient Egypt , c.

Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life.

Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. The use of herbal medicines and phytonutrients or nutraceuticals continues to expand rapidly across the world with many people now resorting to these products for treatment of various health challenges in different national healthcare settings WHO, This past decade has obviously witnessed a tremendous surge in acceptance and public interest in natural therapies both in developing and developed countries, with these herbal remedies being available not only in drug stores, but now also in food stores and supermarkets.

medicinal plants and herbs pdf

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This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are possibly used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi, and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination.

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У нас все это записано на пленку, и если вы хотите… - Исчезает фильтр Х-одиннадцать! - послышался возглас техника.  - Червь преодолел уже половину пути. - Забудьте про пленку, - сказал Бринкерхофф.  - Вводите ключ и кончайте со всем. Джабба вздохнул. На сей раз голос его прозвучал с несвойственным ему спокойствием: - Директор, если мы введем неверный ключ… - Верно, - прервала его Сьюзан.  - Если Танкадо ничего не заподозрил, нам придется ответить на ряд вопросов.

 Спасибо, мисс Флетчер.  - Он подал едва заметный знак, и ворота распахнулись. Проехав еще полмили, Сьюзан подверглась той же процедуре перед столь же внушительной оградой, по которой был пропущен электрический ток. Давайте же, ребята… уже миллион раз вы меня проверяли. Когда она приблизилась к последнему контрольно-пропускному пункту, коренастый часовой с двумя сторожевыми псами на поводке и автоматом посмотрел на номерной знак ее машины и кивком разрешил следовать. Она проехала по Кэнин-роуд еще сотню метров и въехала на стоянку С, предназначенную для сотрудников. Невероятно, - подумала она, - двадцать шесть тысяч служащих, двадцатимиллиардный бюджет - и они не могут обойтись без меня в уик-энд.

Первый - с личного терминала коммандера, запертого в его кабинете, и он, конечно, исключался. Второй - с помощью ручного выключателя, расположенного в одном из ярусов под помещением шифровалки. Чатрукьян тяжело сглотнул. Он терпеть не мог эти ярусы. Он был там только один раз, когда проходил подготовку.

Беккер шумно вздохнул. Разумеется.

От волнений и переживаний он совсем забыл, где находится. Он же в аэропорту. Где-то там, на летном поле, в одном из трех частных ангаров севильского аэропорта стоит Лирджет-60, готовый доставить его домой. Пилот сказал вполне определенно: У меня приказ оставаться здесь до вашего возвращения. Трудно даже поверить, подумал Беккер, что после всех выпавших на его долю злоключений он вернулся туда, откуда начал поиски.

Снова открыв окно, Сьюзан изучила содержащуюся в нем информацию. Какая-то бессмыслица. Вначале был зарегистрирован нормальный ввод замка, в тот момент, когда она выходила из помещения Третьего узла, однако время следующей команды отпирания показалось Сьюзан странным. Две эти команды разделяло меньше одной минуты, но она была уверена, что разговаривала с коммандером больше минуты. Сьюзан просмотрела все команды.

Сейчас ему надо было совершить давно уже откладываемую прогулку в туалетную комнату. ГЛАВА 64 Сьюзан осталась одна в тишине и сумерках Третьего узла. Стоявшая перед ней задача была проста: войти в компьютер Хейла, найти ключ и уничтожить все следы его переписки с Танкадо. Нигде не должно остаться даже намека на Цифровую крепость.

Однако в дверях появился Стратмор. Бледная, жуткая в тусклом свете мониторов фигура застыла, грудь шефа тяжело вздымалась.

Секрет выражения без воска был ему слишком дорог. Он уходил корнями в давние времена. В эпоху Возрождения скульпторы, оставляя изъяны при обработке дорогого мрамора, заделывали их с помощью сеrа, то есть воска.

 Не знаю… - В голосе слышалась нерешительность.  - Я бы только… - Не надо спешить, друг. Мне стыдно это говорить, но полиция у нас в Севилье далеко не так эффективна, как на севере.

В целях безопасности каждый файл, загруженный в ТРАНСТЕКСТ, должен был пройти через устройство, именуемое Сквозь строй, - серию мощных межсетевых шлюзов, пакетных фильтров и антивирусных программ, которые проверяли вводимые файлы на предмет компьютерных вирусов и потенциально опасных подпрограмм. Файлы, содержащие программы, незнакомые устройству, немедленно отвергались. Их затем проверяли вручную. Иногда отвергались абсолютно безвредные файлы - на том основании, что они содержали программы, с которыми фильтры прежде не сталкивались.

Эта машина помогла предотвратить десятки преступлений, но связанная с ней информация строго засекречена и никогда не будет раскрыта. Причина такой секретности проста: правительство не может допустить массовой истерии. Никто не знает, как поведет себя общество, узнав, что группы фундаменталистов дважды за прошлый год угрожали ядерным объектам, расположенным на территории США. Ядерное нападение было, однако, не единственной угрозой.

Конгресс собирался принять закон, объявляющий этот новый алгоритм национальным стандартом, что должно было решить проблему несовместимости, с которой сталкивались корпорации, использующие разные алгоритмы. Конечно, просить АН Б приложить руку к совершенствованию системы общего пользования - это все равно что предложить приговоренному к смертной казни самому сколотить себе гроб. ТРАНСТЕКСТ тогда еще не был создан, и принятие стандарта лишь облегчило бы процесс шифрования и значительно затруднило АНБ выполнение его и без того нелегкой задачи. Фонд электронных границ сразу увидел в этом конфликт интересов и всячески пытался доказать, что АНБ намеренно создаст несовершенный алгоритм - такой, какой ему будет нетрудно взломать.

Бринкерхофф не верил своим ушам. - Мидж, я ни под каким видом не пущу тебя в кабинет директора. - Ты должен это сделать! - потребовала она и, отвернувшись, начала что-то печатать на клавиатуре Большого Брата.  - Мне нужен список очередности работы на ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ.

 - Сьюзан пожала плечами, демонстрируя равнодушие. - Мы с ним какое-то время переписывались, - как бы невзначай сказал Хейл.  - С Танкадо.

ГЛАВА 110 Невидящими глазами Джабба смотрел на распечатку, которую ему вручила Соши. Он побледнел и вытер рукавом пот со лба. - Директор, у нас нет выбора.

Момент истины настал в одно ненастное октябрьское утро. Провели первый реальный тест. Несмотря на сомнения относительно быстродействия машины, в одном инженеры проявили единодушие: если все процессоры станут действовать параллельно, ТРАНСТЕКСТ будет очень мощным.

Сьюзан ответила ему теплой улыбкой. Ее всегда поражало, что даже в преддверии катастрофы Стратмор умел сохранять выдержку и спокойствие. Она была убеждена, что именно это качество определило всю его карьеру и вознесло на высшие этажи власти. Уже направляясь к двери, Сьюзан внимательно посмотрела на ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

 - Она направилась к двери. - Ты уходишь.

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