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Lawrence Summers Women Are Underrepresented In Science And Math Careers Pdf

lawrence summers women are underrepresented in science and math careers pdf

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Harvard Chief Defends His Talk on Women

Similarly, professional advice and support networks are important to understanding the advancement of scientific careers. This research aims to marry these two lines of research to investigate and compare the ways in which men and women scientists seek advice and support from women in their networks.

Using a sample of academic scientists in nonmedical biology, chemistry, computer science, earth and atmospheric sciences, electrical engineering, and physics we assess the extent to which women and men scientists seek advice and support from women in their networks.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Exact question wording: Q1. Over the past two academic years, which individuals at your university have been your closest research collaborators?

Over the past two academic years, who have been your closest research collaborators outside of your institution including other academic institutions, government, and industry? With which individuals do you regularly talk with about research but have never formally collaborated? From whom do you seek advice about your career or professional development? With whom do you regularly talk about important university or department related issues?

Acker, J. Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society, 4 2 , — Browne, K.

Women in the workplace: Evolutionary perspectives and public policy. Salmon Eds. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar. Callister, R. The impact of gender and department climate on job satisfaction and intentions to quit for faculty in science and engineering fields.

Journal of Technology Transfer, 31 3 , — Curtin, J. The climate for women graduate students in physics. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 3 , 95— Emmett, A. Technology Review , 16— Epstein, C. Etzkowitz, H. Gender inequality in science: A universal condition.

Minerva, 39 , — The paradox of critical mass for women in science. Science, , 51— Athena unbound: The advancement of women in science and technology. Fox-Keller, E. Reflections on gender and science. Gutek, B. Sex and the workplace. Handelsman, J.

More women in science. Science, , — Horning, B. The controversial career of evelyn fox keller. Technology Review , 58— Kanter, R. Some effects of proportions on group life: Skewed sex ratios and responses to token women.

American Journal of Sociology, 82 , — Kemelgor, C. Minerva, 39 2 , — Konrad, A. The impact of workgroup composition on social integration and evaluation. Kretschmer, H. Journal of Informetrics, 1 4 , — Kulis, S. Women scientists in academia: Geographically constrained to big cities, college clusters, or the coasts? Research in Higher Education, 43 1 , 1— Discriminatory organizational contexts and black scientists on postsecondary faculties.

Research in Higher Education, 40 2 , — More than a pipeline problem: Labor supply constraints and gender stratification across academic science disciplines. Research in Higher Education, 43 6 , — Lee, S. Foreign-born scientists in the United States: Do they perform differently than native-born scientists? Lin, N. Social resources and strength of ties: Structural factors in occupational status attainment. American Sociological Review, 46 , — Long, J.

Measures of sex differences in scientific productivity. Social Forces, 71 , — McPherson, M. Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27 , — Merton, R.

The matthew effect in science. Science, , 56— The sociology of science: Theoretical and empirical investigations. National Academies of Science. BIO Transforming undergraduate education for future research biologists. National Science Foundation. Division of science resources statistics. Science and engineering doctorate award.

Survey of Earned Doctorates — Washington DC. Oliver, P. The paradox of group size in collective action: A theory of the critical mass. American Sociological Review, 53 1 , 1—8. Pepe, A. Collaboration in sensor network research: An in-depth longitudinal analysis of assortative mixing patterns. Scientometrics , Published online 31 December Rapoport, R. Beyond work-family balance: Advancing gender equity and workplace performance.

Rodriguez, M. On the relationship between the structural and socioacademic communities of a coauthorship network. Journal of Informetrics, 2 3 , — Rosenfeld, R. Academic career mobility for psychologists. Perrucci Eds. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Sabharwal, M. Examining the job satisfaction patterns of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the academy: a comparison with U.

Insensitive, Uninformed, or Right? The Education of Larry Summers

Similarly, professional advice and support networks are important to understanding the advancement of scientific careers. This research aims to marry these two lines of research to investigate and compare the ways in which men and women scientists seek advice and support from women in their networks. Using a sample of academic scientists in nonmedical biology, chemistry, computer science, earth and atmospheric sciences, electrical engineering, and physics we assess the extent to which women and men scientists seek advice and support from women in their networks. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Exact question wording: Q1.

I have read with interest about the creation of a modern iPad app of the timeline, because the poster included only one woman Hypatia and mostly Western mathematicians. Having an App by that new title with the information might give people a mistaken impression about the prevalence of women and minorities in mathematics. Since the time of the creation of the poster there has been great interest in as well as an abundance of historical research and publications related to the contributions of women and minorities in mathematics, contributions from non- Western cultures and the development of the field of ethnomathematics. Psychology and biology are considered not to be math-intensive fields. Inaccurate title and abstract.

The president of Harvard University, Lawrence H. Summers, who offended some women at an academic conference last week by suggesting that innate differences in sex may explain why fewer women succeed in science and math careers, stood by his comments yesterday but said he regretted if they were misunderstood. Summers said in an interview. Several women who participated in the conference said yesterday that they had been surprised or outraged by Dr. Summers's comments, and Denice D. Summers sharply during the conference, saying she needed to "speak truth to power.

Why women are poor at science, by Harvard president

Women in STEM networks: who seeks advice and support from women scientists?

Harvard Chief Defends His Talk on Women

Lawrence Summers suggested that innate differences between men and women might be one reason fewer women succeed in science and math careers. In addition, Summers questioned how much of a role discrimination plays in the scarcity of female professors in science and engineering at elite universities. His comments were made at an event co-sponsored by the Alfred P. His comments have been refuted by many researchers and Dr.

The presence of women in science spans the earliest times of the history of science wherein they have made significant contributions. Historians with an interest in gender and science have researched the scientific endeavors and accomplishments of women, the barriers they have faced, and the strategies implemented to have their work peer-reviewed and accepted in major scientific journals and other publications. The historical, critical, and sociological study of these issues has become an academic discipline in its own right.

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Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton 's administration ultimately Treasury Secretary , — , [2] [3] [4] and former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama — In , he was promoted to Deputy Secretary of the Treasury under his long-time political mentor Robert Rubin. In , he succeeded Rubin as Secretary of the Treasury. While working for the Clinton administration, Summers played a leading role in the American response to the economic crisis in Mexico , the Asian financial crisis , and the Russian financial crisis. He was also influential in the Harvard Institute for International Development and American-advised privatization of the economies of the post-Soviet states , and in the deregulation of the U.

The presence of women in science spans the earliest times of the history of science wherein they have made significant contributions. Historians with an interest in gender and science have researched the scientific endeavors and accomplishments of women, the barriers they have faced, and the strategies implemented to have their work peer-reviewed and accepted in major scientific journals and other publications. The historical, critical, and sociological study of these issues has become an academic discipline in its own right. The involvement of women in medicine occurred in several early western civilizations , and the study of natural philosophy in ancient Greece was open to women. Women contributed to the proto-science of alchemy in the first or second centuries AD. During the Middle Ages, religious convents were an important place of education for women, and some of these communities provided opportunities for women to contribute to scholarly research. The 11th century saw the emergence of the first universities ; women were, for the most part, excluded from university education.

A sk Dr. Clemmons is a monthly advice column for scientists and engineers who are seeking top-notch academic, career, and personal development advice. Please read the introductory article to see what the column is all about, and then send me a question of your own! With all of the recent attention and controversy surrounding the comments made by the president of Harvard University, Lawrence H. Summers, I have become confused. In fact, I have been planning most of my life to attend Harvard and have studied extremely hard to assure that I gain admission.

Many scholars and policymakers have noted that the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM have remained predominantly male with historically low participation among women since the origins of these fields in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. Scholars are exploring the various reasons for the continued existence of this gender disparity in STEM fields. Those who view this disparity as resulting from discriminatory forces are also seeking ways to redress this disparity within STEM fields these typically construed as well-compensated, high-status professions with universal career appeal. Studies suggest that many factors contribute to the attitudes towards the achievement of young men in mathematics and science , including encouragement from parents, interactions with mathematics and science teachers, curriculum content, hands-on laboratory experiences, high school achievement in mathematics and science, and resources available at home. Analyzing several nationally representative longitudinal studies , one researcher found few differences in girls' and boys' attitudes towards science in the early secondary school years.

The president of Harvard University has provoked a furore by arguing that men outperform women in maths and sciences because of biological difference, and discrimination is no longer a career barrier for female academics. Lawrence Summers, a career economist who served as treasury secretary under President Clinton, has a reputation for outspokenness. His tenure at Harvard has been marked by clashes with African-American staff and leftwing intellectuals, and complaints about a fall in the hiring of women.

Insensitive, Uninformed, or Right? The Education of Larry Summers

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Why women are poor at science, by Harvard president

Хейл сердито посмотрел на обезумевшего сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности и обратился к Сьюзан: - Я сейчас вернусь. Выпей воды.

Сьюзан положила голову ему на грудь и слушала, как стучит его сердце. А ведь еще вчера она думала, что потеряла его навсегда. - Дэвид, - вздохнула она, заметив на тумбочке его записку.  - Скажи мне, что такое без воска. Ты же знаешь, что шифры, которые не поддаются, не выходят у меня из головы.

Тогда он вернулся в кабинет и прикрыл за собой дверь, затем заблокировал ее стулом, подошел к столу и достал что-то из выдвижного ящика. В тусклом свете мониторов Сьюзан увидела, что это, и побледнела. Он достал пистолет. Он выдвинул два стула на середину комнаты.

Women in science

Сьюзан и Стратмор в недоумении посмотрели друг на друга. - Что это? - вскрикнула Сьюзан между сигналами. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся! - сказал Стратмор.

Простые числа играют важнейшую роль в японской культуре. Стихосложение хайку основано на простых числах. Три строки по пять, семь и снова пять слогов. Во всех храмах Киото… - Довольно! - сказал Джабба.  - Если ключ - простое число, то что с .

И снова постаралась держаться с подчеркнутым безразличием. - Он поздравил меня с обнаружением черного хода в Попрыгунчике, - продолжал Хейл.  - И назвал это победой в борьбе за личные права граждан всего мира.

Беккер старался не обращать внимания на легкий запах перца. Меган сказала, что, если тереть глаза, будет только хуже. Он даже представить себе не может, насколько хуже.

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