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Mcketta Encyclopedia Of Chemical Processing And Design Pdf

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Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Encyclopedia of chemical processing and design. Includes bibliographic references. Chemical engineeringDictionaries 2.

McKetta, John J. Cunningham, William Aaron. E66 Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microlming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Contributors to Volume 69 Steve Chum, Ph. Cocco, Ph. Fishbach, P. Goldstein, Ph. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. Sam Mannan, Ph. Patel, Ph. Contributors to Volume 69 Michael V. Pishko, Ph.

Weimer, Ph. Goldstein and David M. Sam Mannan, Jim Makris, and H. Patel and Steve Chum iii vii ix. To convert from acre angstrom are atmosphere bar barrel 42 gallon Btu International Steam Table Btu mean Btu thermochemical bushel calorie International Steam Table calorie mean calorie thermochemical centimeter of mercury centimeter of water cubit degree angle denier international dram avoirdupois dram troy dram U.

Multiply by 4. Conversion to SI Units Multiply by 9. Bringing Costs up to Date Cost escalation via ination bears critically on estimates of plant costs. Historical costs of process plants are updated by means of an escalation factor. However, the proportion allotted to each element differs with each index. The differences in overall results of each index are due to uneven price changes for each element. Date The engineer should become familiar with each index and its limitations before using it.

The Nelson-Farrar Indexes are better suited for petroleum renery materials, labor, equipment, and general renery ination. Here, A the size of units for which the cost is known, expressed in terms of capacity, throughput, or volume; B the size of unit for which a cost is required, expressed in the units of A; n 0.

Combining Eqs. Let the sizing exponent, n, be equal to 0. From Table 1, the CE Index for was Via Eq. First Quarter Control Device Carbon adsorbers Catalytic incinerators Electrostatic precipitators Fabric lters Flares Gas absorbers Mechanical collectors Refrigeration systems Regenerative thermal oxidizers Thermal incinerators Wet scrubbers Avg. Editors note: For a more thorough explanation of updating costs, see the article, Tower Cost Updating in volume One design involves a fast-uidized bed where high gas velocities convey a substantial amount of solids to one or more cyclones.

The separated particles are fed back to the uidized bed using a standpipe. The second basic design uses a riser to convey solids to one or more cyclones. The separated particles are fed to an optional uidized bed and then back to the riser.

Solids ow rates can be controlled using nonmechanical L- and J-valves or using a mechanical slide valve. The large-scale commercial realization of CFBs occurred in the early s, although some coal gasication was done in a uidized bed as early as [1]. With the increased demand for gasoline during World War II, major efforts were underway to develop reactors to crack petroleum feedstocks into usable fuels more productively than the moving bed or snake reactors i.

The result was a uidized catalyst cracker FCC , where high catalyst circulation rates allowed a balance between the exothermic burning of coke on the catalyst in the regenerator and the endothermic hydrocracking of petroleum in the reactor. The continuous circulation or regeneration of catalyst provided fresh catalyst for petroleum cracking and thereby resulted in high sustainable productivities. With the addition of a stripping section after the reactor, even higher yields were obtained.

The addition of steam, CO 2, or other inerts would remove the product from and around catalyst particles owing toward the regenerator. Today, the evolution of the FCC unit has results into several basic designs, as shown in Fig. In , circulating uidized beds contributed to another breakthrough process for the petroleum and chemical industry. Previous technology was done in tube-and-shell xed-bed reactors. The high heat transfer characteristic of uidized-bed reactors made them ideal for the production of acrylonitrile.

Today, nearly all large-scale acrylonitrile plants are based on the SOHIO design, with capacities up to , tons per year [4]. The inherent hydrodynamics of uidized beds, where solids and, to a lesser extent, gas circulate from the top of the bed to the bottom, then to the top again, would have a deleterious effect on acrylonitrile selectivity.

To overcome backmixing, SOHIO developed sieve trays to compartmentalize the gas ow in the uidized-bed reactor to resemble a more plug-ow characteristic [5]. In , SOHIO redesigned the acrylonitrile reactor to more of a tube-and-shell uidized-bed unit [6], as shown in Fig. Adapted from Refs.

During the late s and early s oil crisis, circulating uidized beds found applications in coal combustion. The high-heat-transfer capabilities of these reactors resulted in lower operating temperatures, thereby reducing NO x and SO 2 emissions.

In addition, the high gas velocities resulted in signicant turbulence, which provided uniform temperatures in the combustor. With the surplus of oil starting in the late s, uidized-bed combustors became economically less attractive. As of the early s, only Dynergy via the Destec process and Lurgi and Ahlstrom are practicing this technology [7].

Today, circulating uidized beds are used in a wide array of chemical processes, as shown in Table 1. With uidized beds having the unique distinction of excellent heat transfer and continuous in situ regeneration, the economic attractiveness of processing thermally sensitive chemicals or using catalysts that require TABLE 1 Some Fluidized and Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor Processes Product Acrolynitrile Aniline Chloromethanes Goal gasication Hydrocyanic acid Maleic anhydride Maleic anhydride Maleic anhydride Perchlorethlyene Phthalic anhydride Polyethylene Synthesis gas Vinyl chloride Process Propene ammoxidation Nitrobenzene hydrogenation Cat.

Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactors frequent regeneration are more realized. Once the obstacles of backmixing, mass transfer, and attrition have been addressed, these reactors often set the standards in reactor design. Basic Concepts As the gas velocity through a bed of solids increases, the bed undergoes several regimes, as shown in Fig. At rst, the gas velocity is insufcient to uidize the particles and the bed remains xed.

With increasing velocity and under ideal conditions, the xed bed expands smoothly and uniformly. Particles move in a limited uidlike fashion and the bed pressure drop becomes constant. At this point, the bed is commonly referred to as undergoing minimum uidization. Further increases in gas velocity results in further bed expansion and particles appear to freely move throughout the bed.

The gas permeates through the bed without the formation of bubbles. This regime is referred to as smooth uidization and is only observed for Geldart Group A powders see Appendix A. These powders require noticeably higher gas velocities to promote the formation of gas bubbles after minimum uidization. In contrast, Group B powders begin bubbling shortly after minimum uidization.

Group C powders, being cohesive, may even show signs of bubbling prior to minimum uidization; however, this is usually the result of channeling. The onset of bubbles in the uidized bed is commonly referred to as bubbling uidization. Here, gas bubbles form at or near the distributor and grow to a maximum bubble size as they propagate through the bed.

The top of the uidized bed is still well dened, as it was in the minimum and smooth uidization regimes. The pressure drop across the bed is still constant, on average, but starts exhibiting large, but regular, uctuations with time. As the gas velocity continues to increase, the top of the bed becomes less dened. Large amounts of particles are ejected into the freeboard region above the bed. Concurrently, sizeable regions of voidage and particle clusters are seen.

For Group A and B powders, this transition from the bubbling uidized-bed regime is called the onset of turbulent uidization. Group C and D powders may show a slugging behavior prior to the turbulent uidization regime.

During fast uidization, the gas velocity is sufcient enough that the surface of the bed can no longer be discerned. Particle density is still higher at the bottom of the unit compared to the top, suggesting that some sort of bed exists. Particle clusters and streamers are readily observed and, in some cases, a coreannulus radial variation in particle density begins to take shape.

Particle entrainment is high and the total disengagement height may be well beyond the physical dimensions of the uidized-bed unit. To overcome the losses of particles due to entrainment, cyclones may be used to capture entrained particles and recirculate them back into the bed.

At very high gas velocities, nearly all the particles are entrained from the bed. This regime is commonly referred to as pneumatic conveying. In this regime, axial variation in particle density is no longer observed, except maybe in entrance and exit regions. Radial variation in particle density can vary dramatically and range from a coreannulus prole to a uniform prole.

For dense systems, clusters and streamers are readily observed. Thus, for gassolid systems, increases in the gas velocity results in dramatic and sometimes sharp transitions in the hydrodynamics. In the design of uidized beds, it is crucial that one knows the uidized regime that will exist at operating conditions.

Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design Volume 31

McKetta William A. Includes bibliographical references. Chemical engineering- Dictionaries. Chemistry, Technical- Dictionaries. McKetta, John J.

This second edition Encyclopedia supplies nearly gold standard articles on the methods, practicesAuthor: Sunggyu Lee. If you are interested in proposing a book for the series, please contact one of the series editors or one of our acquisitions editors. A complete reconceptualization of the classic reference series the Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, whose first volume published inthis resource offers extensive A-Z treatment of the subject in five simultaneously published volumes, with comprehensive indexing of all five volumes in the back matter of each tome. Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design Book Summary: "Written by engineers for engineers with over International Editorial Advisory Board members ,this highly lauded resource provides up-to-the-minute information on the chemical processes, methods, practices, products, and standards in the chemical, and related, industries. Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design book.

mcketta encyclopedia of chemical processing and design pdf

Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design

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This transformation encompasses a proliferation of industrial internet. Chemical engineering is the science that deals with the development of chemical processes from a small-scale laboratory reaction vessel to a large-scale production process under economic, safety, ecological, and juristic boundary conditions. The chemical engineer has to develop and to improve the quality of the corresponding technical tools. Chemical reactions are an integral part of technology, of culture, and indeed of life itself. Burning fuels, smelting iron, making glass and pottery, brewing beer, and making wine and cheese are among many examples of activities incorporating chemical reactions that have been known and used for thousands of years.

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