File Name: medicinal plants in nigeria and their uses .zip
Little attention has been given to assessing the medicinal plant species in home gardens.
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Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed.
Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants.
Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants.
AMR is the ability of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to grow despite exposure to antimicrobial antibacterial or antifungal agent designed to inhibit their growth [ 1 ]. In general, microorganisms exhibit AMR by innate e. CELR develops via endogenous gene mutation or via HGT of resistance determinants from other microorganisms [ 4 ] while COLR occurs when a group of organisms become tolerant to environmental stress [ 5 ].
COLR is often observed among persisters organisms that change their physiological state to become tolerant to lethal effect of drugs in bacterial biofilms [ 4 , 5 ]. It was earlier thought that AMR evolved after the development of penicillin in s, but historical reports, as well as studies on bacterial organisms from permafrost, had revealed that microorganisms exhibited innate AMR long before the development of any antimicrobial agent [ 6 - 8 ].
However, it is inappropriate use abuse, misuse or overuse of antimicrobials in human, animal, and plant settings that triggered the emergence of acquired AMR in microorganismcolistin,[ 8 ]. These organisms superbugs jeopardize antimicrobial therapy resulting in untreatable and fatal infections [ 7 ].
There is no need reiterating their involvement in hospital-, nosocomial-, and community-linked infections worldwide [ 7 , 8 ]. The economic and health impact of AMR on a global scale is enormous and dreadful [ 4 , 7 , 10 ]. Other recent studies estimated population reduction of between 11 million and million people and a reduction in the size of the global economy by 0. The impact of AMR is worse in developing nations, including Nigeria, where the cost of treatment of resistant infections and associated deaths are unaccounted for [ 15 ].
It is largely recognized that most of the currently available antimicrobials which are mainly synthetic are almost inefficient and most of these agents elicit terrible effects to recipients [ 16 - 18 ].
For example, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, and hypersensitivity reactions are associated with the administration of antimicrobials such as sulfonamide and fluoroquinolones, and penicillin, respectively [ 19 , 20 ]. The African traditional medicine is the oldest medicinal system and often culturally referred to as the Cradle of Mankind [ 16 , 25 ].
Traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years in various parts of the world [ 26 , 27 ].
There has been a renewed interest in indigenous medicine worldwide because orthodox medicine is not widespread [ 17 , 27 ].
In poor countries, the health care has been sustained by other practices based on cultural alternatives [ 27 ]. Despite the availability of modern medicine in some communities, herbal medicines medicinal plants have continued to maintain popularity for historical and cultural reasons, in addition to their efficacy and cheaper cost [ 17 , 24 , 27 ].
They also represent sources of potentially important new pharmaceutical substances since all parts of a plant, from roots to seed heads and flowers, are employed in traditional remedies and can, therefore, act as sources of lead compounds [ 17 ].
The use of plant remedies has steadily increased worldwide in recent years as well as the search for new phytochemicals that potentially could be developed as useful drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases [ 16 , 24 , 28 ]. Nigeria is located in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea. The country is divided administratively into the Federal Capital Territory Abuja and 36 states [ 17 ], these states are grouped into 6 geographical regions.
Covering an area of , km 2 , Nigeria is a country rich in biodiversity, possessing an array of fauna and flora including about 20, species of insects, almost 1, species of birds, species of mammals, species of reptiles, about 1, species of fish [ 17 , 30 ].
Nigeria boasts a unique and diverse botanical heritage with over 7, plant species of which ca. The humid tropical climate of Nigeria supports the growth and development of many plant species that have been used in Nigerian traditional medicine even before the advent of Western medicine [ 17 ].
Not only is the Nigerian flora rich in diversity but it is also mostly endemic [ 16 , 34 ]. In addition to this unique botanical heritage, Nigeria has a cultural diversity with traditional healing being integral to each ethnic group [ 16 , 17 ].
Map showing Nigeria and her neighbors [ 17 , 46 ]. Despite the well-documented ethnobotanical literature, very little scientific information e. From available literature, the earliest documents on antimicrobial activity of Nigerian plants seem to be those of Dalziel [ 36 , 37 ] in and , respectively.
Two decades later, few other publications on chemistry and antimicrobial activities of Nigerian plants appeared in the literature [ 38 , 39 ]. In the s, few studies on antimicrobial activity of Nigerian plants became available in the literature [ 40 - 42 ].
However, from to date, there has been an avalanche of publications in the literature on the chemistry and antimicrobial properties of Nigerian medicinal plants. This recent emergence in the scientific validation of antimicrobial activities of Nigerian medicinal plants may be a result of increased public awareness, method advancements and a number of citations in local books confirming the need for such studies [ 16 , 36 , 37 , 43 ].
Further reasons for advancement of work on Nigerian medicinal plant include searching for new lead compounds to be developed as drugs or as templates for analog synthesis and the evaluation of traditional medicine and herbal medicinal products [ 17 , 24 , 44 ].
Medicinal effects of Nigerian plants are attributed to interaction of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, and essential oils and bioactive compounds contained in their tissues [ 16 , 45 ]. Scientific compilation of studies on antimicrobial activity of Nigerian plants would enhance understanding of the extent of research that has been undertaken to elucidate the antimicrobial potential of these plants.
Such study could arouse interest on Nigerian plants with potential antimicrobial activity from which new antimicrobial molecules could possibly be isolated. This review highlights the findings of studies that have been undertaken on antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants Several steps are taken in evaluation of plants for antimicrobial activity.
Selection of plant for antimicrobial screening is necessary to avoid unnecessary waste of time and resources [ 16 ]. Four standard approaches used for selecting plants include: 1 Random selection followed by chemical screening, 2 random selection followed by antimicrobial assays, 3 follow-up of antimicrobial activity reports, and 4 follow-up of ethnomedical or traditional uses of plants against infectious diseases [ 27 , 45 - 47 ].
Of these four approaches, the random selection followed by antimicrobial assay of plants against infectious diseases was the most common approach used by studies cited in this review [ Table 1 ]. Selection of plant for antimicrobial investigation based on ethnomedical use is the best approach to avoid waste of resources and time [ 16 , 48 ]. While most of the studies on antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants reported expert identification of selected plant s , only few papers [ 49 - 60 ] reported deposition of plant in herbarium with the accompanying voucher number.
Selection of the plant part to be evaluated may be based on ethnomedical use, randomly or follow-up of antimicrobial activity [ 61 ].
Different parts of a plant may contain varying types and amount of phytochemicals [ 45 ], thus the extent of extraction of these bioactive substances depends on the type of solvent used for extraction and the degree of binding with other substances in the plant material [ 24 , 61 ].
The process of extraction in antimicrobial studies is critical as it determines to a large extent the result of the study [ 24 , 61 ]. In cases where the study is based on ethnomedical approach, an important factor to consider is the preparation of extract as described by the traditional healers to mimic as much as possible the way the herbal remedy is indigenously used [ 16 , 32 ].
In this way, the use of the plant in the traditional medicine can be correctly validated or invalidated. In cases where the antimicrobial activity of the plant is not based on ethnomedical approach, selection of solvent system largely depends on the specific nature of the bioactive compound being targeted [ 24 ].
In general, however, a good solvent used in plant extraction for antimicrobial bioassay should i have low toxicity, ii have relatively low boiling point so as to be easily removed from the compound after extraction, iii promote rapid physiological absorption of the desired compound in the extract in specific body compartments, iv have preservative action and inability to cause the quenching or dissociation of active principles, and v not interfere with the bioassay as the end product in extraction will contain traces of residual solvent [ 24 , 61 ].
Although aqueous water extraction is commonly used by the traditional healers, it has been shown that plant extracts obtained using organic solvents give more potent and consistent antimicrobial activity result than aqueous extract [ 16 , 24 , 62 , 63 ].
Studies indicated acetone as the most favorable solvent for plant extraction in antimicrobial studies [ 16 , 24 , 64 ]. Some of the antimicrobial screening papers in this review instead of using water or ethanol that is used in traditional medicine used organic solvent including ethyl acetate, methanol, butanol, petroleum ether and hexane for extraction [ Table 1 ]. These organic solvents are not acceptable in indigenous preparation of plant extracts, thus the result could have been affected in a way [ 32 ].
Consideration should also be given to time and temperature of extraction as these as well as the solvent determines the extraction yield [ 24 ]. Some screening papers in this review reported the use of hot aqueous solvents for extraction may be to increase yield or to mimic the extraction procedure used by the traditional practitioners [ Table 1 ].
Nasir et al. Some publications on Nigerian medicinal plants reported fractionation of extracts with various organic solvents [ 65 - 72 ].
In vitro or in vivo method employed in assay of antimicrobial activity of plant extracts is critical. This relates to the fact that microbiological methods incorporate viable test microorganisms; therefore, predictability of the outcome is not always clear and subject to many environmental influences that may impact on a response [ 16 , 61 ].
Hence, there is need for standardization of methods which is often encountered with many problems [ 16 , 61 ]. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have standardized some of the methods used in antimicrobial assay [ 76 ] but it should be noted that these methods are standardized for standard drug preparations and not really for plant extracts [ 61 ].
Various in vitro methods are employed in assay of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity; these methods have been extensively reviewed [ 24 , 61 , 76 , 77 ]. The most critical step in in vitro assay of plant extract for antimicrobial activity is the inoculum size quantification of selected organism [ 24 , 76 ].
Hemocytometric method is considered the best for quantifying fungal spores [ 78 ]. Few papers on antimicrobial activity of Nigerian plants against mold reported the use of hemocytometeric method in quantifying spores of selected organism [ 79 - 81 ]. Review of over papers on antimicrobial investigation of Nigerian medicinal plants revealed the use of various antimicrobial assay methods. Figure 2 represents proportion of studies and the methods used to assess antimicrobial activity of Nigerian plants from — Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and Agar well diffusion AWD assays are the two most common methods used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants.
The MIC assay is a quantitative method of measuring antimicrobial activity based on the principle of contact of a test organism to a series of dilutions of test substance [ 16 , 24 , 76 ]. MIC is the lowest concentration of the antimicrobial agent that prevents visible growth of a microorganism under known conditions [ 24 , 76 , 82 ].
Assays involving MIC methodology such as macro [test tubes] and micro [microtitre plates] broth dilution and agar dilution are widely used and an accepted criterion for measuring the susceptibility of organisms to inhibitors [ 16 , 83 ]. This is supported by majority of publications on Nigerian plants representing The AWD is a widely used method of assay possibly because it indicates the concentration of the plant extract that exhibit the highest microbiostatic effect on the test organisms [ 24 , 76 ].
The method is qualitative and based on the principle of contact of a test organism to an equal volume of different concentrations of test substance inoculated into wells of equal depth and diffusing into cultured agar [ 24 , 76 ]. Although AWD resembles disc diffusion, it is preferred to disc diffusion because it gives a more consistent result [ 24 , 76 ] and this is supported by high proportion However, variation in data obtained using MIC assay may be influenced by factors such as the inoculum size, the type of growth medium, the incubation time, and the inoculum preparation method [ 76 , 90 , 91 ].
The fact that a lower proportion of publications on antimicrobial activity of Nigerian plants The use of disc diffusion in these studies may possibly be due to its simplicity and capacity to analyze a large number of test samples [ 16 , 24 , 76 ]. Some studies on Nigerian plant extract presented only disc diffusion data [ 80 , 92 - 99 ] while some papers 7. Although disc diffusion methodology is a quick simple means of screening for antimicrobial activity, it is associated with problems which may arise when investigating oil samples [ 16 ].
The associated problems that could yield inconsistent result with disc diffusion assay include variation in diffusion rates due to differences in chemical nature of the particular sample, lipophilic substances like essential oil or water-insoluble samples do not easily diffuse through the agar even with a pre-diffusion time allocation of 1 h [ 16 , 76 , ]. Thus, false negatives may still be encountered and the possibility of activity could be underestimated [ 16 ]. Volatility of oily samples is another prominent factor to be considered [ 16 ].
There are many medicinal plants used as home remedies for various diseases and conditions in Nigeria. Below is a summarised list and uses of medicinal plants in Nigeria. Medicinal plants in Nigeria are plants used for making home remedies and traditional medicines or what we all know as herbal medicine. Any part of the plant could be used. In some plants, almost every part can be used in one home remedy or another.
The plants also captured in Food as Medicine: Functional Food Plants of Africa include: Moringa oleifera, bitter kola Garcinia kola , bitter leaf Vernonia amygdalina , cashew Anarcadium occidentale , scent leaf Ocimum gratissimum , African bush mango Irvingia gabonensis , yellow yam Dioscorea bulbifera , Prunus africana for prostate cancer, baobab Adansonia digitata , and Hibiscus sabdariffa zobo. Standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. So Nigeria has a national mirror committee NMC made up of Nigerian experts and we have representative from Nigerian Medical Council, Veterinary Council, the various schools of pharmacy, some pharmaceutical companies, a lot of scientists are involved. Almost all the government agencies that have something to do with natural medicine are involved.
Harriet U. Ugboko, Obinna C. Nwinyi, Solomon U. Oranusi, Toluwase H. Fatoki, Conrad A. Despite the success of antibiotic discovery, infectious diseases remain the second leading source of death worldwide, while the resistance to antibiotics is among the significant problems in the twenty-first century.
A compiled check list of these plants including their Latin names, families, parts used, medicinal uses, and name in different Nigerian states is the main purpose.
Сьюзан пойдет со. А вы останетесь. - Мне неприятно тебе это говорить, - сказал Стратмор, - но лифт без электричества - это не лифт. - Вздор! - крикнул Хейл. - Лифт подключен к энергоснабжению главного здания.
Дэвид грустно вздохнул: - Потому-то я и звоню. Речь идет о нашей поездке. Нам придется ее отложить. - Что-о? - Сьюзан окончательно проснулась. - Прости. Я срочно уезжаю. Вернусь завтра.
Как он выглядит - на фото. Быть может, я смогу его узнать. - Ну… - произнес голос. - Он очень, очень полный. Ролдан сразу понял. Он хорошо запомнил это обрюзгшее лицо.
Он еще раз сжал его руку, но тут наконец подбежала медсестра.
Клушару эта идея понравилась. Он сел в кровати. - Нуда, конечно… С удовольствием.
Пользователь писал письмо, пропускал его через специальную программу, и на другом конце линии адресат получал текст, на первый взгляд не поддающийся прочтению, - шифр. Тот же, кто перехватывал такое сообщение, видел на экране лишь маловразумительную абракадабру. Расшифровать сообщение можно было лишь введя специальный ключ - секретный набор знаков, действующий как ПИН-код в банкомате.
Я сделал это ради нас обоих. Мы созданы друг для друга. Сьюзан, я люблю. - Слова лились потоком, словно ждали много лет, чтобы сорваться с его губ.
Дэвид Беккер поднялся на последнюю крутую ступеньку и, едва держась на ногах, шагнул в крошечную каменную клетку. Со всех сторон его окружали высокие стены с узкими прорезями по всему периметру. Выхода .
Над ними, опираясь на перила площадки перед своим кабинетом, стоял Стратмор. Какое-то время в здании слышался только неровный гул расположенных далеко внизу генераторов. Сьюзан отчаянно пыталась встретиться взглядом со Стратмором. Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Хейл.
Сигнальная лампочка вспыхнула, и массивная стена с грохотом отъехала влево. В АНБ было только одно помещение, еще более засекреченное, чем шифровалка, и Сьюзан поняла, что сейчас она окажется в святая святых агентства. ГЛАВА 109 Командный центр главного банка данных АНБ более всего напоминал Центр управления полетами НАСА в миниатюре. Десяток компьютерных терминалов располагались напротив видеоэкрана, занимавшего всю дальнюю стену площадью девять на двенадцать метров. На экране стремительно сменяли друг друга цифры и диаграммы, как будто кто-то скользил рукой по клавишам управления.
Сьюзан ничего не ответила. - Я вижу, ты выдающийся командный игрок. Может быть, можно взглянуть? - Он встал и начал обходить круг терминалов, двигаясь по направлению к. Сьюзан понимала, что сегодня любопытство Хейла может привести к большим неприятностям, поэтому быстро приняла решение. - Это диагностика, - сказала она, взяв на вооружение версию коммандера.
У вирусов есть линии размножения, приятель. Тут ничего такого .
Полагаю, вы получили обе копии ключа. - Вышла небольшая заминка, - сказал американец. - Это невозможно! - рявкнул Нуматака. - Вы обещали, что они будут у меня сегодня до конца дня. - Произошло нечто непредвиденное.
Все элементы игры поменялись местами. Невскрываемого алгоритма никогда не существовало, как не существовало и Цифровой крепости. Файл, который Танкадо разместил в Интернете, представлял собой зашифрованный вирус, вероятно, встроенный в шифровальный алгоритм массового использования, достаточно сильный, чтобы он не смог причинить вреда никому - никому, кроме АНБ.
He знаю. Но уж определенно не здесь! - Он улыбнулся. - Может, все-таки чего-нибудь выпьете. Беккер понимал, что, по мнению бармена, ведет себя странно. - Quiere Vd.
Халохот остановился у одного из окон, расположенных на уровне его плеча, и посмотрел на улицу.
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