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Anatomy And Physiology Of Urinary Bladder Pdf

anatomy and physiology of urinary bladder pdf

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Urinary tract : The transport and removal of urine from the body follows the urinary tract. The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are referred to as the urinary system, which is another name for the renal system. The renal system filters the plasma of blood and regulates blood volume by excreting excess water in the form of urine.

Anatomy and Function of the Urinary System

Urinary tract : The transport and removal of urine from the body follows the urinary tract. The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are referred to as the urinary system, which is another name for the renal system. The renal system filters the plasma of blood and regulates blood volume by excreting excess water in the form of urine.

Urine transport follows a path through the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, which are collectively known as the urinary tract. Urine is essentially water, ions, and secreted molecules that leave the collecting duct of the many nephrons of the kidney and flow into the ureters.

The ureters are two tubes that drain urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter is a muscular tube that drains into the bladder. Smooth muscle contractions in the walls of the ureters, over time, send the urine in small spurts into the bladder, the organ where urine is stored before it can be eliminated.

The bladder is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a balloon. It sits in the pelvis and is held in place by ligaments attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder stores urine until enough of it accumulates for removal from the body.

It swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty. If the urinary system is healthy, the bladder can hold up to 16 ounces 2 cups of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours. Circular muscles called sphincters help keep urine from leaking. The sphincter muscles close tightly, like a rubber band, around the opening of the bladder into the urethra, the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body.

Nerves in the bladder are stimulated as the bladder fills with urine and becomes larger, which in turn stimulates the need to urinate.

When you urinate, the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax.

As these muscles relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra, and leaves the body through an opening in the genital region that contains the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs, removing urine from the body.

The ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In the adult, the ureters are usually 25—30 cm 10—12 in long and 3—4 mm in diameter. The ureter is one of the essential organs of urinary tract that controls urine transport.

The ureters are two tubes that are made out of smooth muscle and transitional epithelial tissues, which are a type of epithelial tissue that may either be columnar or squamous. Each kidney has its own ureter through which urine drains into.

Human urinary system : 1 Human urinary system. The ureters are long tubes that have a few points of constriction, where obstructions are more common. The ureters receive a blood supply from a few different major arteries including the renal and illiac artery derivatives, and have a relatively dense nerve supply as well. Muscles in the walls of the ureters send the urine in small spurts into the bladder, in a process called peristalsis. After the urine enters the bladder from the ureters, small folds in the bladder mucosa act like valves to prevent the backward flow of the urine; these are called the ureteral valves.

The ureteral valves function similarly to the semilunar valves in the veins of the body, but are structurally different, consisting of transverse mucosal epithelial folds. Kidney stones and cancer are common diseases of the ureter. A kidney stone can move from the kidney and become lodged inside the ureter, which can block the flow of urine, as well as cause a sharp cramp in the back, side, or lower abdomen. The affected kidney could then develop hydronephrosis, should a part of the kidney become swollen due to blocked flow of urine.

Kidney stones are very common and are usually clumps of aggregated minerals that are most often found at the constriction points in the ureter. Ureter cancer is often due to a malignant transformation of of the transitional epithelial tissue, which is more vulnerable to developing cancer cells compared to other tissues.

The urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distendible or elastic organ that sits on the pelvic floor. The urinary bladder is a urine storage organ that is a part of the urinary tract. The bladder is a hollow, muscular, and elastic organ that sits on the pelvic floor. The bladder expands and fills with urine before it is discharged into the urethra during urination.

The bladder is a hollow, sac-like organ made of transitional epithelium, similar to the ureter that feeds into it. The ureters enter the bladder diagonally from its dorsolateral floor in an area called the trigone, which is a triangle-shaped anatomical region. The urethra exits at the lowest point of the triangle of the trigone. There are two sphincters, or muscular valves, that separate the bladder from the urethra. The sphincters must open before the urine can flow into the urethra.

The internal sphincter is under involuntary control and the external sphincter is under voluntary control. The urinary bladder : The urinary bladder is composed of several layers of tissue that facilitate urine storage and expulsion. The associated structures of the urinary and male reproductive tract are labelled. When the bladder fills with urine stretch receptors send nerve impulses to the spinal cord, which then sends a reflex nerve impulse back to the internal sphincter valve at the neck of the bladder that causes it to relax and allow the flow of urine into the urethra.

The internal urethral sphincter is involuntary and controlled by the autonomic nerves. The bladder has a minor temperature regulation function since some heat may leave the body in the form of urine. A normal bladder empties completely upon a complete discharge, otherwise it is a sign that its elasticity is compromised; when it becomes completely void of fluid, it may cause a chilling sensation due to the rapid change of body temperature.

The urinary bladder usually holds — ml of urine. As urine accumulates, the walls of the bladder thin as it stretches, allowing the bladder to store larger amounts of urine without a significant rise in internal pressure of the bladder.

The bladder receives motor innervation from both sympathetic fibers, most of which arise from the hypogastric plexuses and nerves, and parasympathetic fibers, which come from the pelvic splanchnic nerves and the inferior hypogastric plexus.

Sensation from the bladder is transmitted to the central nervous system CNS via general visceral afferent fibers. The urethra is a muscular tube that connects the bladder with the outside of the body and removes urine from the body.

The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids from the body. The external urethral sphincter is a striated muscle that allows voluntary control over urination by controlling the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra.

In females, the urethra is shorter relative to males, and emerges above the vaginal opening. Its lining is composed primarily of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that becomes transitional near the bladder. The urethra consists of three layers of tissues:. Somatic conscious innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve, which allows the sphincter to open and close.

As the urethra is shorter in females relative to males, they are more vulnerable to bacterial urinary tract infections. In males, the urethra travels through the penis and carries semen as well as urine. Semen does not flow through the bladder or the rest of the urinary tract, instead it is a fluid made of sperm cells and other fluids that passes through a few different glands from the testes to the urethra through the vas deferens.

Micturition is the ejection of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body. Micturition, also known as urination, is the ejection of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.

In healthy humans the process of urination is under voluntary control. In infants, elderly individuals, and those with neurological injury, urination may occur as an involuntary reflex.

Physiologically, micturition involves the coordination of the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. The brain centers that regulate urination include the pontine micturition center, the periaqueductal gray, and the cerebral cortex, which cause both involuntary and voluntary control over micturition. In males, urine is ejected through the penis, and in females through the urethral opening. Due to sexual dimorphism, and the positions where the urethra ends, males and females often use different techniques for urination.

Micturition consists of two phases:. Location of urethral orifice in females : Location of the external urethral orifice in adult females. The muscles controlling micturition are controlled by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems, which open the two sphincters during the voiding phase of micturition. During the storage phase the internal urethral sphincter is tense and the detrusor muscle is relaxed by sympathetic stimulation.

During the voiding phase of micturition, parasympathetic stimulation causes the internal urethral sphincter to relax. The external urethral sphincter sphincter urethrae is under somatic control and is consciously relaxed and thus opened during micturition. Many males prefer to urinate standing.

In females, the urethra opens straight into the vulva. Because of this, the urine often does not exit at a distance from the body and is therefore seen as harder to control.

The state of the micturition reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory stretch fibers from the bladder and urethra. At low bladder volumes, the afferent firing of the stretch receptors is low, and results in relaxation of the bladder.

At high bladder volumes, the afferent firing of the stretch receptors increases, and causes a conscious sensation of urinary urge. This urge becomes stronger as the bladder becomes more full. This reflex may lead to involuntary micturition in individuals that may not be able to feel the sensation of urinary urge, due to the firing of the stretch receptors themselves.

In addition to the kidneys, the liver, skin, and lungs also have important roles in the excretion of waste from the body. These other systems are responsible for the elimination of the waste products of the metabolism, as well as other liquid and gaseous wastes, but also provide other critical functions.

The lungs : The lungs are responsible for the removal of gaseous waste from the body. Similar to renal clearance, these other organs have a clearance rate of their own, and also forms a part of total body clearance. The skin, lungs, and liver are the main waste removal organs outside of the non-renal system; however, their ability to remove wastes is generally less than that of the renal system. The liver has many vital functions, including a role in digestion, protein synthesis, and nutrient and vitamin storage.

The liver also plays an important function in the management of body waste. It acts as a detoxification system for the body, processing and neutralizing drugs and toxins. The liver is involved in the breakdown and recycling of red blood cells, including the removal of bilirubin from the body by secreting it into the bile, which then functions as a fat emulsifier in the digestive system.

Additionally, the liver is involved in the removal of toxic ammonia from the body by converting it to non-toxic urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys and put into urine during tubular secretion.

Skin has sweat glands that secrete a fluid waste called perspiration.

Physiology of urinary bladder and urethra, normal and pathological

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The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. The upper half of the ureter is located in the abdomen and the lower half is located in the pelvic area. The ureter is about 10 to 12 inches long in the average adult. The tube has thick walls composed of a fibrous, a muscular, and a mucus coat, which are able to contract. If any of these disorders occur, the passage of urine is blocked and can cause pyelonephritis inflammation of the kidney due to infection , loss of renal function, or renal calculi kidney stones. Treatment is possible through insertion of a catheter a special tube , a stent a support to keep vessels or tubes open , or through surgery.

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder , and a urethra. The kidneys alone perform the functions just described and manufacture urine in the process, while the other organs of the urinary system provide temporary storage reservoirs for urine or serve as transportation channels to carry it from one body region to another. The kidneys, which maintain the purity and constancy of our internal fluids, are perfect examples of homeostatic organs. The urethra is a thin-walled tube that carries urine by peristalsis from the bladder to the outside of the body. Every day, the kidneys filter gallons of fluid from the bloodstream. The normal physiology that takes place in the urinary system are as follows:.

anatomy and physiology of urinary bladder pdf

Renal system

Urinary Bladder

Urinary bladder

Urinary bladder. The urinary bladder is a musculo-membranous hollow organ that acts as a reservoir for the urine. In the newborn it is ovoid and lies chiefly in the abdomen, adjacent to the ventral abdominal wall. Its base is located behind the symphysis pubis.

In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the bladder — its shape, vasculature and neurological control. The appearance of the bladder varies depending on the amount of urine stored. When full, it exhibits an oval shape, and when empty it is flattened by the overlying bowel. Urine enters the bladder through the left and right ureters, and exits via the urethra.

Renal system , in humans , organ system that includes the kidneys , where urine is produced, and the ureters , bladder , and urethra for the passage, storage, and voiding of urine. In many respects the human excretory, or urinary, system resembles those of other mammalian species, but it has its own unique structural and functional characteristics. The terms excretory and urinary emphasize the elimination function of the system. The kidneys, however, both secrete and actively retain within the body certain substances that are as critical to survival as those that are eliminated.

The urinary bladder , or simply bladder , is a hollow muscular organ in humans and other vertebrates that stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination. In the human the bladder is a hollow distensible organ that sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. The typical human bladder will hold between and ml

Click Image to Enlarge. The body takes nutrients from food and changes them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood. The kidney and urinary systems help the body to get rid of liquid waste called urea.

Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology

Фойе оказалось помещением с изысканной отделкой и элегантной обстановкой. Испанский Золотой век давным-давно миновал, но какое-то время в середине 1600-х годов этот небольшой народ был властелином мира. Комната служила гордым напоминанием о тех временах: доспехи, гравюры на военные сюжеты и золотые слитки из Нового Света за стеклом. За конторкой с надписью КОНСЬЕРЖ сидел вежливый подтянутый мужчина, улыбающийся так приветливо, словно всю жизнь ждал минуты, когда сможет оказать любезность посетителю.

 - Это совершенный квадрат. - Совершенный квадрат? - переспросил Джабба.  - Ну и что с. Спустя несколько секунд Соши преобразовала на экране, казалось бы, произвольно набранные буквы.

Несмотря на свой внушительный вид, дешифровальное чудовище отнюдь не было островом в океане. Хотя криптографы были убеждены, что система фильтров Сквозь строй предназначалась исключительно для защиты этого криптографического декодирующего шедевра, сотрудники лаборатории систем безопасности знали правду. Фильтры служили куда более высокой цели - защите главной базы данных АНБ. Чатрукьяну была известна история ее создания. Несмотря на все предпринятые в конце 1970-х годов усилия министерства обороны сохранить Интернет для себя, этот инструмент оказался настолько соблазнительным, что не мог не привлечь к себе внимания всего общества.

The Urinary Bladder

Сьюзан посмотрела на него и подумала о том, как жаль, что этот человек, талантливый и очень ценный для АНБ, не понимает важности дела, которым занимается агентство.

И повернулась к Джаббе.  - Ключ - это первичное, то есть простое число. Подумайте. Это не лишено смысла. Джабба сразу понял, что Сьюзан права.

Почему я звоню. Я только что выяснил, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ устарел. Все дело в алгоритме, сочинить который оказалось не под силу нашим лучшим криптографам! - Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу. Сьюзан окаменела. Она не произнесла ни слова.

Почему же не открывается дверца. Вглядевшись, она как в тумане увидела еще одну панель с буквами алфавита от А до Z и тут же вспомнила, что нужно ввести шифр. Клубы дыма начали вытекать из треснувших оконных рам. Сьюзан в отчаянии колотила в дверную панель, но все было бесполезно. Шифр, подумала .

Его лицо казалось растерянным.


  1. Popea D.

    08.05.2021 at 22:45

    Urine produced by the kidneys flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, where is it stored before passing into the urethra and exiting the body.

  2. RosalГ­a M.

    08.05.2021 at 22:48

    Ureters: The ureters carry urine approximately cm from the kidneys to the bladder for elimination. Gravity and peristaltic waves within the ureters propel urine.

  3. Mirabelle P.

    12.05.2021 at 19:59

    List of regular verbs with present tense past tense and past participle pdf all vegetables name in english with pictures pdf

  4. JeremГ­as S.

    15.05.2021 at 12:13

    The ureters are bilateral fibromuscular tubes that drain urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder. They are generally 22–30 cm in length and course through the.

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