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# Basic Electricity And Magnetism Pdf

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Published: 06.05.2021

Book Description: This textbook emphasizes connections between theory and application, making physics concepts interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the mathematical rigour inherent in the subject. Frequent, strong examples focus on how to approach a problem, how to work with the equations, and how to check and generalize the result.

AC and DC currents. In a hurry? Electricity and magnetism are fundamentally related.

## Electricity and Magnetism By Benjamin Crowell

When lightning strikes, nearby magnetic compass needles may be seen to jerk in response to the electrical discharge. No compass needle deflection results during the accumulation of electrostatic charge preceding the lightning bolt, but only when the bolt actually strikes.

What does this phenomenon indicate about voltage, current, and magnetism? The presence of an electric current will produce a magnetic field , but the mere presence of a voltage will not. It paved the way for the development of electric motors, among other useful electrical devices.

Just as electricity may be harnessed to produce magnetism, magnetism may also be harnessed to produce electricity. The latter process is known as electromagnetic induction.

Design a simple experiment to explore the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. Perhaps the easiest way to demonstrate electromagnetic induction is to build a simple circuit formed from a coil of wire and a sensitive electrical meter a digital meter is preferred for this experiment , then move a magnet past the wire coil.

You should notice a direct correlation between the position of the magnet relative to the coil over time, and the amount of voltage or current indicated by the meter. Many students improperly assume that electromagnetic induction may take place in the presence of static magnetic fields.

This is not true. Incidentally, this activity is a great way to get students started thinking in calculus terms: relating one variable to the rate of change over time of another variable. A large audio speaker may serve to demonstrate both the principles of electromagnetism and of electromagnetic induction. Explain how this may be done. The magnet is stationary, being solidly anchored to the metal frame of the speaker, and is centered in the middle of the voice coil.

Follow-up question: identify some possible points of failure in a speaker which would prevent it from operating properly. Any time you can encourage students to set up impromptu experiments in class for the purpose of exploring fundamental principles, it is a Good Thing. What do you think might happen if someone were to gently tap on the cone of one of these speakers?

What would the other speaker do? In terms of electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction, explain what is happening. Try this experiment yourself, using a long pair of wires to separate the two speakers from each other by a significant distance. Listen and feel the speaker on your end while someone else taps on the other speaker, then trade roles. Not only does this experiment illustrate the dual principles of electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction, but it also demonstrates how easy it is to set up a simple sound-powered audio telephony system.

Draw the pattern of the magnetic field produced by electric current through a straight wire and through a wire coil:. Explain your answer using either the right-hand rule conventional flow or the left-hand rule electron flow.

When engineers and physicists draw pictures illustrating the magnetic field produced by a straight current-carrying wire, they usually do so using this notation:. Explain what the circle-and-dot and circle-and-cross symbols mean, with reference to the right-hand rule.

The circles with dots show the magnetic flux vectors coming at you from out of the paper. The circles with crosses show the magnetic flux vectors going away from you into the paper.

Think of these as images of arrows with points dots and fletchings crosses. As a follow-up to this question, you might wish to draw current-carrying wires at different angles, and with current moving in different directions, as practice problems for your students to draw the corresponding arrow points and tails.

Let the facts themselves give you the answer! This experiment is well worth performing during discussion time with your students. One of the habits you should encourage in your students is experimentation to discover or confirm principles. Another point you might want to mention here is the problem-solving technique of altering the problem. Instead of envisioning two straight parallel wires, imagine those wires being bent so they form two parallel coils. Now the right-hand rule applies for determining magnetic polarity, and the question of attraction versus repulsion is more easily answered.

A permanent magnet is a device that retains a magnetic field without need for a power source. Though many of us have experienced the effects of magnetism from a permanent magnet, very few people can describe what causes permanent magnetism.

Explain the cause of permanent magnetism, in your own words. Magnetism is caused by electric charges in motion. Since electrons in atoms are known to move in certain ways, they are able to produce their own magnetic fields. In some types of materials, the motions of atomic electrons are easily aligned with respect to one another, causing an overall magnetic field to be produced by the material. Follow-up question: what does the term retentivity mean, in relation to permanent magnetism?

The answers students find to this question may be philosophically unsatisfying. It is one thing to discover that magnetism is produced by moving electric charges, but quite another to discover much less explain just what a magnetic field is in an ontological sense. Sure, it is easy to explain what magnetic fields do , or even how they relate to other phenomenon.

But what, exactly, is a magnetic field? Cranes used to move scrap iron and steel use electrically powered magnets to hold the metal pieces, rather than a scoop or some other mechanical grasping device:. In this illustration of a crane, superimpose a drawing showing the electromagnet, electrical power supply and wiring necessary for this to work. Also include a switch so the crane operator can turn the magnet on and off. I will leave it to you to draw the illustration of this circuit on the crane.

Your answer should show a wire coil embedded in the electromagnet assembly, a switch symbol near the operator, a battery symbol for the power supply, and wires carrying current to and from the electromagnet coil. The main purpose of this question is to have the students relate the principles of electric circuits and electromagnetism to a real-life application, and to show how the wire paths in the crane do not resemble the neat, clean layout of the schematic diagram. In the development of this valve, though, the design engineers discover that the magnetic force produced by the electromagnet coil is not strong enough to achieve reliable valve actuation every time.

What can be changed in this solenoid valve design to produce a greater actuating force? Here are a few ways in which the strength of the magnetic field may be increased: pass a greater electrical current through the coil, use more turns of wire in the coil, or accentuate the field strength using better or larger magnetic core materials.

These are not the only ways to increase the mechanical force generated by the action of the magnetic field on the iron armature, but they are perhaps the most direct. Follow-up question: suppose this valve did not open like it was supposed to when the solenoid coil was energized.

Identify some possible reasons for this type of failure. What students need to do in this question is apply those techniques to this real-life scenario.

Be sure to spend time on the follow-up question with your students, considering non-electrical as well as electrical fault possibilities. A coil of wire is formed of many loops. These loops, though tracing a circular path, may be thought of as being parallel to each other. When electric current is passed through a coil of wire, does the inter-loop force tend to compress the coil or extend it? Explain your answer. Challenge question: what will happen to a wire coil if alternating current is passed through it instead of direct current?

Will the coil compress, extend, or do something entirely different? Some students, of course, will have a much more difficult time visualizing this than others.

For those that struggle with this form of problem-solving, spend some discussion time on problem-solving visualization techniques to help those who find this difficult to do. Is there a particular drawing, sketch, or analogy that other students have found useful in their analysis of the problem? You may find students divided on this assessment, some thinking there will an alternating force, while others think the force will remain in the same direction at all times.

There is one sure way to prove who is correct here: set up an experiment with AC power and see for yourself straight, parallel wires will work just fine for this! Which magnet motion past the wire will produce the greatest voltmeter indication: perpendicular, parallel, or no motion at all?

The answer to this question is easy enough to determine experimentally. Follow-up question: identify some potential problems which could arise in this experiment to prevent induction from occurring. This is another one of those concepts that is better learned through experimentation than by direct pronouncement, especially since the experiment itself is so easy to set up. Published under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License. In Partnership with Mouser Electronics.

Don't have an AAC account? Create one now. Forgot your password? Click here. Latest Projects Education. Worksheets Basic Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Induction. PDF Version. Question 1 When lightning strikes, nearby magnetic compass needles may be seen to jerk in response to the electrical discharge. Reveal answer The presence of an electric current will produce a magnetic field , but the mere presence of a voltage will not.

Question 2 Just as electricity may be harnessed to produce magnetism, magnetism may also be harnessed to produce electricity. Reveal answer Perhaps the easiest way to demonstrate electromagnetic induction is to build a simple circuit formed from a coil of wire and a sensitive electrical meter a digital meter is preferred for this experiment , then move a magnet past the wire coil.

Notes: Many students improperly assume that electromagnetic induction may take place in the presence of static magnetic fields. Question 3 A large audio speaker may serve to demonstrate both the principles of electromagnetism and of electromagnetic induction.

This experiment is most impressive when a physically large i. Question 4 What do you think might happen if someone were to gently tap on the cone of one of these speakers? Reveal answer Try this experiment yourself, using a long pair of wires to separate the two speakers from each other by a significant distance. Notes: Not only does this experiment illustrate the dual principles of electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction, but it also demonstrates how easy it is to set up a simple sound-powered audio telephony system.

Question 5 Draw the pattern of the magnetic field produced by electric current through a straight wire and through a wire coil: Explain your answer using either the right-hand rule conventional flow or the left-hand rule electron flow. Reveal answer.

## Basic Electricity & Magnetism: “But it’s the Law, Doktor Ohm!”

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force , a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields , and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light. It is one of the four fundamental interactions commonly called forces in nature , together with the strong interaction , the weak interaction , and gravitation. Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force , which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. The electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. The electromagnetic attraction between atomic nuclei and their orbital electrons holds atoms together. Electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules , and intermolecular forces.

These lecture notes were written for the version of this course, and do not correspond directly to the calendar in the syllabus. Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW. Explore materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. No enrollment or registration. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. There's no signup, and no start or end dates.

## Grade 11 Physics Electricity And Magnetism Test

### Electromagnetism

Found worksheet you are looking for? Is this correct? They are AC current and DC current. Introduction to Electricity The path that is made of a conducting wire that carries current from negative terminal of a source to positive terminal of the source is called electric circuit. It is also great for substitutes!

Any errors or mistakes please let us know. The Physics Classroom Tutorial presents physics concepts and principles in an easy-to-understand language. Scroll down the page for lessons and examples for the following topics: Forces, Waves and Magnetism. Discovery of magnetism: Discoveries and projectsDiscovery of magnetic fields: Discoveries and projectsMeasuring magnetic fields.

Сэр, - удивленно произнесла Сьюзан, - просто это очень… - Да, да, - поддержал ее Джабба.  - Это очень странно. В ключах никогда не бывает пробелов. Бринкерхофф громко сглотнул. - Так что вы хотите сказать? - спросил. - Джабба хотел сказать, что это, возможно, не шифр-убийца. - Конечно же, это убийца! - закричал Бринкерхофф.

BASIC ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM. 1) Idea about EMF, current, power, resistance, inductance, capacitance, power factor, educarparalapazinterior.org their measurement. 2) Study.

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