File Name: 20 amino acids and their structures and functions .zip
If you're ready to pass your A-Level Biology exams, become a member now to get complete access to our entire library of revision materials. Not ready to purchase the revision kit yet? No problem. If you want to see what we offer before purchasing, we have a free membership with sample revision materials. Signup as a free member below and you'll be brought back to this page to try the sample materials before you buy. All proteins are macromolecules because of their very high molecular weights.
Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino —NH 2 and carboxyl —COOH functional groups , along with a side chain R group specific to each amino acid. About naturally occurring amino acids are known as of though only 20 appear in the genetic code and can be classified in many ways. In the form of proteins , amino acid residues form the second-largest component water is the largest of human muscles and other tissues. In biochemistry , amino acids which have the amine group attached to the alpha- carbon atom next to the carboxyl group have particular importance. They include the 22 proteinogenic "protein-building" amino acids,    which combine into peptide chains "polypeptides" to form the building blocks of a vast array of proteins. Twenty of the proteinogenic amino acids are encoded directly by triplet codons in the genetic code and are known as "standard" amino acids. The other two "nonstandard" or "non-canonical" are selenocysteine present in many prokaryotes as well as most eukaryotes , but not coded directly by DNA , and pyrrolysine found only in some archaea and one bacterium.
Side chains (R groups): group amino acids by structure and function. (Assignment: memorize amino acids by name, side chain, abbreviations, characteristic).
Chemically speaking, an amino acid is a carboxylic acid which has an amine group attached to it.
Basic Structure of Amino Acids. Introduction Essential amino acids Why learn this? Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. The 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility.
All of the proteins on the face of the earth are made up of the same 20 amino acids.
Although there are hundreds of amino acids found in nature, proteins are constructed from a set of 20 amino acids. Generally, amino acids have the following structural properties:. All amino acids have the alpha carbon bonded to a hydrogen atom, carboxyl group, and amino group. The "R" group varies among amino acids and determines the differences between these protein monomers.
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