File Name: climate change and extreme weather events .zip
Tags: Climate ; Extreme weather event ; Climate monitoring Add tag. The results of the mission should inform plans and investments in strengthening the Early Warning System and disaster risk management in the country, particularly during reconstruction to ensure building back better and overall strengthening of resilience.
NCBI Bookshelf. The urgent question of how to act on what is known—or even suspected—about the potential health consequences of climate change, which underscored discussion throughout the workshop, is taken up explicitly in this chapter. The first paper, coauthored by speaker Douglas MacPherson of McMaster University and Migration Health Consultants, Incorporated, focuses on the complex, two-way association between climate change and human mobility and its role in infectious disease emergence. The authors discuss the burgeoning influence of human mobility and migration on infectious disease emergence and describe a variety of ways in which interactions between climate and human behavior shape infectious disease dynamics, from the cataclysmic repercussions of extreme weather events to the slowly evolving impacts of increasing temperatures, sea level rise, and decreasing freshwater availability. If, as expected, climate change drives the simultaneous emergence of multiple infectious diseases along many possible pathways, the authors observe, preventing the global spread of individual pathogens is unlikely to be feasible.
The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. A team of more than experts guided by a member Federal Advisory Committee produced the report, which was extensively reviewed by the public and experts, including federal agencies and a panel of the National Academy of Sciences.
Some extreme weather and climate events have increased in recent decades, and new and stronger evidence confirms that some of these increases are related to human activities. Changes in extreme weather and climate events, such as heat waves and droughts, are the primary way that most people experience climate change. Human-induced climate change has already increased the number and strength of some of these extreme events.
Over the last 50 years, much of the U. Heat waves are periods of abnormally hot weather lasting days to weeks. The number of heat waves has been increasing in recent years. This trend has continued in and , with the number of intense heat waves being almost triple the long-term average. The recent heat waves and droughts in Texas and the Midwest set records for highest monthly average temperatures. Analyses show that human-induced climate change has generally increased the probability of heat waves.
Higher temperatures lead to increased rates of evaporation, including more loss of moisture through plant leaves. Even in areas where precipitation does not decrease, these increases in surface evaporation and loss of water from plants lead to more rapid drying of soils if the effects of higher temperatures are not offset by other changes such as reduced wind speed or increased humidity.
Both states set new records for the hottest summer since record keeping began in Rates of water loss, due in part to evaporation, were double the long-term average.
Heavy downpours are increasing nationally, especially over the last three to five decades. The heaviest rainfall events have become heavier and more frequent, and the amount of rain falling on the heaviest rain days has also increased.
Since , the amount of rain falling in very heavy precipitation events has been significantly above average. There has also been an increase in flooding events in the Midwest and Northeast, where the largest increases in heavy rain amounts have occurred. One measure of heavy precipitation events is a two-day precipitation total that is exceeded on average only once in a 5-year period, also known as the once-in-five-year event.
As this extreme precipitation index for shows, the occurrence of such events has become much more common in recent decades. Figure source: adapted from Kunkel et al. The mechanism driving these changes is well understood. Warmer air can contain more water vapor than cooler air. Global analyses show that the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere has in fact increased due to human-caused warming.
Climate change also alters characteristics of the atmosphere that affect weather patterns and storms. Flooding may intensify in many U. A flood is defined as any high flow, overflow, or inundation by water that causes or threatens damage. Major weather factors include heavy or prolonged precipitation, snowmelt, thunderstorms, storm surges from hurricanes, and ice or debris jams.
Human factors include structural failures of dams and levees, altered drainage, and land-cover alterations such as pavement. Flash floods occur in small and steep watersheds and waterways and can be caused by short-duration intense precipitation, dam or levee failure, or collapse of debris and ice jams.
Most flood-related deaths in the U. Urban flooding can be caused by short-duration very heavy precipitation. Urbanization creates large areas of impervious surfaces such as roads, pavement, parking lots, and buildings that increased immediate runoff, and heavy downpours can exceed the capacity of storm drains and cause urban flooding.
Flash floods and urban flooding are directly linked to heavy precipitation and are expected to increase as a result of increases in heavy precipitation events. River flooding occurs when surface water drained from a watershed into a stream or a river exceeds channel capacity, overflows the banks, and inundates adjacent low lying areas. Riverine flooding depends on precipitation as well as many other factors, such as existing soil moisture conditions and snowmelt.
Coastal flooding is predominantly caused by storm surges that accompany hurricanes and other storms that push large seawater domes toward the shore. Storm surge can cause deaths, widespread infrastructure damage, and severe beach erosion.
Storm-related rainfall can also cause inland flooding and is responsible for more than half of the deaths associated with tropical storms. Increasingly, humanity is also adding to weather-related factors, as human-induced warming increases heavy downpours, causes more extensive storm surges due to sea level rise, and leads to more rapid spring snowmelt.
Worldwide, from to , floods caused more than , deaths and affected more than 2. North Atlantic hurricanes have increased in intensity, frequency, and duration since the early s.
There has been a substantial increase in most measures of Atlantic hurricane activity since the early s, the period during which high quality satellite data are available.
The recent increases in activity are linked, in part, to higher sea surface temperatures in the region that Atlantic hurricanes form in and move through. Numerous factors have been shown to influence these local sea surface temperatures, including natural variability, human-induced emissions of heat-trapping gases, and particulate pollution. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural and human-caused factors is an active focus of research.
Storm surges reach farther inland as they ride on top of sea levels that are higher due to warming. Hurricane development, however, is influenced by more than just sea surface temperature.
How hurricanes develop also depends on how the local atmosphere responds to changes in local sea surface temperatures, and this atmospheric response depends critically on the cause of the change. By late this century, models, on average, project an increase in the number of the strongest Category 4 and 5 hurricanes.
Winter storms have increased in frequency and intensity since the s, 29 and their tracks have shifted northward over the United States. There has been a sizable upward trend in the number of storms causing large financial and other losses.
Ashley, S. Ashley , Flood fatalities in the United States. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology , 47 , , doi Bell, G. Blake, C. Landsea, T. Kimberlain, S. Goldenberg, J. Schemm, and R. Pasch , [Tropical cyclones] Atlantic basin [in "State of the Climate in "]. Camargo, S. Ting, and Y. Climate Dynamics , 40 , , doi Christidis, N. Stott, and S. Brown , The role of human activity in the recent warming of extremely warm daytime temperatures. Journal of Climate , 24 , , doi Dai, A.
Journal of Climate , 19 , , doi Doocy, S. Daniels, S. Murray, and T. Kirsch , The human impact of floods: A historical review of events and systematic literature review. Duffy, P. Tebaldi , Increasing prevalence of extreme summer temperatures in the U. Climatic Change , , , doi Emanuel, K. Sobel , Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems , 5 , , doi Hirsch, R.
Hydrological Sciences Journal , 57 , , doi Hoerling, M. Chen, R. Dole, J. Eischeid, A. Kumar, J. Nielsen-Gammon, P. Pegion, J. Perlwitz, X. Quan, and T. Zhang , Anatomy of an extreme event. Journal of Climate , 26 , —, doi Kunkel, K. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , 94 , doi Landsea, C. Franklin , Atlantic hurricane database uncertainty and presentation of a new database format.
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Weather and Climate Extremes provides academics, decision makers, international development agencies, nongovernmental organizations and civil society with publications on different aspects of research in weather and climate extremes, monitoring and early warning systems, assessment of vulnerability and Weather and Climate Extremes provides academics, decision makers, international development agencies, nongovernmental organizations and civil society with publications on different aspects of research in weather and climate extremes, monitoring and early warning systems, assessment of vulnerability and impacts, developing and implementing intervention policies, effective risk management and adaptation practices to address local and regional needs and circumstances, engagement of local communities in the adoption of these practices to cope with extremes, and information and communication strategies. The journal encourages the submission of original research papers, comprehensive review articles, and short communications which address the following:.
Heat, storms, and floods: is our climate becoming increasingly extreme? . .. 7. Changes of extreme weather events and impacts on health. Available at: educarparalapazinterior.org
Anthropogenic climate change—in its historical, scientific, political, legal, and socioeconomic contexts—is framed in terms of values, goals, and choices for which climate science and modeling alone cannot provide sufficient guidance in decision-making.
In the early s, a new field of climate-science research emerged that began to explore the human fingerprint on extreme weather, such as floods, heatwaves, droughts and storms. These studies have the power to link the seemingly abstract concept of climate change with personal and tangible experiences of the weather. Scientists have published more than peer-reviewed studies looking at weather extremes around the world, from heatwaves in Sweden and droughts in South Africa to flooding in Bangladesh and hurricanes in the Caribbean. The result is mounting evidence that human activity is raising the risk of some types of extreme weather, especially those linked to heat. To track how the evidence on this fast-moving topic is stacking up, Carbon Brief has mapped — to the best of our knowledge — every extreme-weather attribution study published to date. First published in July , this article is the fourth annual update see endnote to incorporate new studies. The map above shows extreme weather events and trends across the globe for which scientists have carried out attribution studies.
Metrics details. This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change LWEC programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience.
The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. A team of more than experts guided by a member Federal Advisory Committee produced the report, which was extensively reviewed by the public and experts, including federal agencies and a panel of the National Academy of Sciences. Some extreme weather and climate events have increased in recent decades, and new and stronger evidence confirms that some of these increases are related to human activities. Changes in extreme weather and climate events, such as heat waves and droughts, are the primary way that most people experience climate change. Human-induced climate change has already increased the number and strength of some of these extreme events. Over the last 50 years, much of the U. Heat waves are periods of abnormally hot weather lasting days to weeks.
Extreme weather or extreme climate events includes unexpected, unusual, severe , or unseasonal weather ; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past. There is evidence to suggest that human-induced global warming is increasing the periodicity and intensity of some extreme weather events. Extreme weather has significant impacts on human society as well as natural ecosystems. Early research in extreme weather focused on statements about predicting certain events, contemporary research has focused more on attribution of causes to trends in events.
Сьюзан, появление Цифровой крепости влечет за собой очень серьезные последствия для всего будущего нашего агентства. Я не намерен информировать президента за спиной директора. У нас возник кризис, и я пытаюсь с ним справиться.
Это и мне сразу пришло в голову. Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное.
- Тут сказано, что сверхкритическая масса плутония составляет тридцать пять и две десятых фунта. - Вот именно! - крикнул Джабба. - Посмотрите уран. Его сверхкритическую массу. - М-м… сто десять фунтов, - сказала Соши.
Как ее зовут? - Женщина лукаво подмигнула. - Меган, - сказал он печально. - Я полагаю, что у вашей подруги есть и фамилия. Беккер шумно вздохнул. Разумеется.
Но надо идти вперед, а не оглядываться все время. - В трубке воцарилась тишина, и Джабба подумал, что зашел слишком. - Прости меня, Мидж. Я понимаю, что ты приняла всю эту историю близко к сердцу.
Часы показывали два часа с минутами по местному времени. Возле главного здания аэровокзала Беккер въехал на тротуар и соскочил с мотоцикла, когда тот еще двигался. Машина упала на бок и замерла.
Четыре года назад конгресс, стремясь создать новый стандарт шифрования, поручил лучшим математикам страны, иными словами - сотрудникам АНБ, написать новый супералгоритм. Конгресс собирался принять закон, объявляющий этот новый алгоритм национальным стандартом, что должно было решить проблему несовместимости, с которой сталкивались корпорации, использующие разные алгоритмы. Конечно, просить АН Б приложить руку к совершенствованию системы общего пользования - это все равно что предложить приговоренному к смертной казни самому сколотить себе гроб.
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