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- RC step response
- Transients in RL and RC Circuits
- Complete Response of RC and RL Circuits
- Response of First-Order RL and RC Circuits Assessment Problems

*The objective of this Lab activity is to study the transient response of inductor circuits using a series RL configuration and understand the time constant concept. As in all the ALM labs we use the following terminology when referring to the connections to the ALM connector and configuring the hardware. When a channel is configured in the high impedance mode to only measure voltage -H is added as CA-H.*

The whole of electronics components can be slip into two broad categories, one being the Active components and the other as Passive components. These are the three most used components in electronics circuit and you will find them in almost every application circuit. These three components together in different combinations will form the RC, RL and RLC circuits and they have many applications like from filtering circuits, Tube light chokes, multivibrators etc.. So in this tutorial we will learn the basic of these circuits, the theory behind them and how to use them in our circuits. Before we jump into the main topics lets understand what an R, L and C does in a circuit.

The whole of electronics components can be slip into two broad categories, one being the Active components and the other as Passive components. These are the three most used components in electronics circuit and you will find them in almost every application circuit.

These three components together in different combinations will form the RC, RL and RLC circuits and they have many applications like from filtering circuits, Tube light chokes, multivibrators etc.. So in this tutorial we will learn the basic of these circuits, the theory behind them and how to use them in our circuits. Before we jump into the main topics lets understand what an R, L and C does in a circuit. A resistor is an element that dissipates energy mostly in form of heat.

It will have a Voltage drop across it which remains fixed for a fixed value of current flowing through it. A capacitor is an element which stores energy temporarily in form of electric field. Capacitor resists changes in voltage. There are many types of capacitors, out of which the ceramic capacitor and the electrolytic capacitors are mostly used. They charge in one direction and discharge in opposite direction.

A Inductor is also similar to capacitor, it also stores energy but is stored in form of magnetic field. Inductors resist changes current.

Inductors are normally a coil wound wire and is rarely used compared to the former two components. When these Resistor, Capacitor and Inductors are put together we can form circuits like RC, RL and RLC circuit which exhibits time and frequency dependent responses that will e useful in many AC applications as mentioned already. Before we start with each topic let us understand how a Resistor, Capacitor and an Inductor behave in an electronic circuit. For the purpose of understanding let us consider a simple circuit consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series with a power supply 5V.

In this case when the power supply is connected to the RC pair, the voltage across the Resistor Vr increase to its maximum value while the voltage across the capacitor Vc stays at zero, then slowly the capacitor starts to build charge and thus the voltage across the resistor will decrease and the voltage across the capacitor will increase until the resistor voltage Vr has reached Zero and Capacitor voltage Vc has reached its maximum value.

The circuit and the wave form can be seen in the GIF below. Let us analyse the wave form in the above image to understand what is actual happening in the circuit is. A well illustrated waveform is show in the image below.

When the switch is turned on the voltage across the resistor red wave reaches its maximum and the voltage across capacitor blue wave remains at zero.

Then the capacitor charges up and Vr becomes zero and Vc becomes maximum. Similarly when the switch is turned off capacitor discharges and hence the negative voltage appears across the Resistor and as the capacitor discharges both the capacitor and resistor voltage becomes zero as shown above.

The same can be visualized for inductors as well. Replace the capacitor with an inductor and the waveform will just be mirrored, that is the voltage across the resistor Vr will be zero when the switch is turned on since the whole voltage will appear across the Inductor Vl.

As the inductor charges up the voltage across Vl it will reach zero and the voltage across the resistor Vr will reach the maximum voltage. The RC circuit Resistor Capacitor Circuit will consist of a Capacitor and a Resistor connected either in series or parallel to a voltage or current source. These types of circuits are also called as RC filters or RC networks since they are most commonly used in filtering applications.

An RC circuit can be used to make some crude filters like low-pass, high-pass and Band-Pass filters. A first order RC circuit will consist of only one Resistor and one Capacitor and we will analyse the same in this tutorial. To understand the RC circuit let us create a Basic circuit on proteus and connect the load across the scope to analyse how it behaves.

The circuit along with the waveform is given below. We have connected a load light bulb of known resistance 1k Ohms in series with a capacitor of uF to form a RC circuit. The circuit is powered by a 12V battery and a switch is used to close and open the circuit. The waveform is measured across the load bulb and is shown in yellow colour on the image above. Initially when the switch is open maximum voltage 12V appears across the resistive light bulb load Vr and the voltage across the capacitor will be zero.

When the switch is closed the voltage across the resistor will drop to zero and then as the capacitor charges the voltage will reach back to maximum as shown in the graph. Let us calculate the time taken for our capacitor to charge up in the circuit. We have calculated that the time taken for the capacitor to charge up will be 2.

The time taken for Vr to reach from 0V to 12V is equal to the time taken for the capacitor to charge from 0V to maximum voltage. The graph is illustrated using the cursors in the below image. Similarly we can also calculate the voltage across the capacitor at any given time and the current through the capacitor at any given time using the below formulas.

Where, V B is the battery voltage and I o is the output current of the circuit. The value of t is the time in seconds at which the voltage or current value of the capacitor has to be calculated. A series RL circuit will be driven by voltage source and a parallel RL circuit will be driven by a current source.

Similarly in a RL circuit we have to replace the Capacitor with an Inductor. The Light bulb is assumed to act as a pure resistive load and the resistance of the bulb is set to a known value of ohms.

When the circuit is open, the voltage across the resistive load will be maximum and when the switch is closed the voltage from the battery is shared between the inductor and the resistive load. The inductor charges up quickly and hence a sudden voltage drop will be experienced by the resistive load R.

Let us calculate the time taken for our inductor to charge up in the circuit. Here we have used an inductor of value 1mH and the resistor of value Ohms. Similarly, we can also calculate the voltage across the Inductor at any given time and the current through the Inductor at any given time using the below formulas. The value of t is the time in seconds at which the voltage or current value of the Inductor has to be calculated.

The circuit forms an Oscillator circuit which is very commonly used in Radio receivers and televisions. It is also very commonly used as damper circuits in analog applications. The resonance property of a first order RLC circuit is discussed below.

The RLC circuit is also called as series resonance circuit, oscillating circuit or a tuned circuit. These circuit has the ability to provide a resonant frequency signal as shown in the below image.

Here we have a capacitor C1 of u and an Inductor L1 of 10mH connected tin series through a switch. Since the wire that is connecting the C and L will have some internal resistance, it is assumed that a small amount of resistance is present due to the wire.

Initially, we keep the switch 2 as open and close the switch 1 to charge up the capacitor from the battery source 9V. Then once the capacitor is charged the switch 1 is opened and then the switch 2 is closed. As soon as the switch is closed the charge stored in the capacitor will move towards the inductor and charge it up. Once the capacitor is fully dis-charged, the inductor will start discharging back into the capacitor this way charges will flow to and fro between the inductor and the capacitor.

But since there will be some loss in charges during this process total charge will gradually decrease until it reaches zero as shown in the graph above.

Few of them are listed below. Recommended Posts. Making the Grade with Linux at the Intelligent Edge. Get embedded world Delivered Right to Your Door. Securing the Next Generation of Connected Vehicles. Embedded Insiders Podcast: The Immortal 8-bit. Get Our Weekly Newsletter! Helena St. Comments Log in or register to post Comment.

Log in Get Started. Response of First-Order RL and See Full Reader. Download for free Report this document. Embed Size px x x x x In this chapter, we will focus on circuits that consist only of sources, resistors, and either but not both inductors or capacitors. For brevity, such configurations are called RL resistor-inductor and RC resistor-capacitor circuits.

The three main components of an AC circuit are resistors, capacitors, and inductors. They will also learn what series and parallel circuits are and what are the differences between these two types of circuits. Shows a simple circuit that employs a dc direct current voltage source. Current transfers energy around circuits. Explain why these are classified as RC circuits. An rc circuit is one containing a resistor r and a capacitor cthe capacitor is an electrical component that stores electric charge. Normally four or Five band resistors are available in market.

Solve for the complete response of RC circuits usingLaplace transformation and by getting the natural. Transients last for only five time constants 5 Capacitor is fully discharged or charged after five time constants sameas in the case of inductor. In other words, it takes for the circuit to reach its final state orsteady-statewhen no changes take place with time. The switch in the circuit below has been closed for a longtime. The switch in the figure below has been in positionA fora long time. How long does it take a F capacitor charged to V to discharge through a 3-M resistor, and what is the. A coil for a relay has a resistance of 30 and aninductance of 2 H.

*Electrical Circuits and Systems pp Cite as.*

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The major difference between RC and RL circuits is that the RC circuit stores energy in the form of the electric field while the RL circuit stores energy in the form of magnetic field. The RC circuit is formed by connecting a resistance in series with the capacitor and a battery source is provided to charge the capacitor. The RL Circuit is formed by connecting a resistance with an inductor and a battery source is provided to supply the current to the inductor. Another significant difference between RC and RL circuits is that RC circuit initially offers zero resistance to the current flowing through it and when the capacitor is fully charged, it offers infinite resistance to the current. While the RL Circuit initially opposes the current flowing through it but when the steady state is reached it offers zero resistance to the current across the coil. There exist some more crucial difference between RC and RL circuits; we will discuss all those with the help of comparison chart.

If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Donate Login Sign up Search for courses, skills, and videos. Science Electrical engineering Circuit analysis Natural and forced response. Capacitor i-v equations. A capacitor integrates current.

RC and RL Circuits. Rules to remember. • ELI the ICE man: Voltage (E) leads Current (I) in an Inductive (L) circuit, whereas Current (I) leads Voltage (E) in a.

A resistor—inductor circuit RL circuit , or RL filter or RL network , is an electric circuit composed of resistors and inductors driven by a voltage or current source. A first-order RL circuit is composed of one resistor and one inductor and is the simplest type of RL circuit. A first order RL circuit is one of the simplest analogue infinite impulse response electronic filters.

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Прикинув, что такси развивает миль восемьдесят - чуть ли не вдвое больше его скорости, - он сосредоточил все внимание на трех ангарах впереди. Средний. Там его дожидается лирджет. Прогремел выстрел. Пуля ударила в асфальт в нескольких метрах позади .

Он купил две бутылки пива и протянул одну Двухцветному. Панк изумленно взглянул на бутылку, потом отпил изрядный глоток и тупо уставился на Беккера. - Чего вы от меня хотите, мистер. Беккер улыбнулся: - Я ищу одну девушку.

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А вы хотите сказать, что какой-то панк с персональным компьютером придумал, как это сделать. Стратмор заговорил тише, явно желая ее успокоить: - Я бы не назвал этого парня панком. Но Сьюзан его не слушала. Она была убеждена, что должно найтись какое-то другое объяснение.

*Ей показалось, что столь своевременная кончина Танкадо решила все проблемы. - Коммандер, - сказала она, - если власти говорят, что он умер от сердечного приступа, это значит, мы к его смерти не причастны.*

Видите ли, я, честно говоря, очень спешу. - Он надеялся, что отказ представителю самого мощного разведывательного ведомства не слишком большая глупость с его стороны, но партия в сквош начиналась через сорок пять минут, а он дорожил своей репутацией: Дэвид Беккер никогда не опаздывает на партию в сквош… на лекцию - да, возможно, но на сквош -. - Постараюсь быть краткой, - улыбнулась Сьюзан Флетчер. - Пожалуйста.

Беккер шумно вздохнул и поднял глаза к потолку. Успокойся, Дэвид. Спокойно.

- За счет заведения. Превозмогая шум в голове, Беккер представил себе грязные улицы Трианы, удушающую жару, безнадежные поиски в долгой нескончаемой ночи. Какого черта. Он кивнул. - Si, echame un poco de vodka.

* Сьюзан, - в его голосе послышалась решимость, - я прошу тебя помочь мне найти ключ Хейла. - Что? - Сьюзан встала, глаза ее сверкали.*

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## 2 Comments

## Melissa O.

The Natural Response of RL and RC Circuits. 1. Differential equation & solution of a discharging RL circuit. 2. Time constant. 3. Discharging RC circuit.

## Iva G.

RC AND RL CIRCUITS. Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors. Summary resistors capacitors inductors series parallel stored energy. 0. DC steady state no current.