File Name: study of science and its branches .zip
What Is Biology?
The science which deals with the study of living objects and their life processes is called biology Greek words, bios — life, logos — study. It covers all aspect of the study of living creatures like occurrence, classification, ecology, economic importance, external form, organization, internal structure, nutrition, health and other body functions, reproduction, life history, inheritance and origin. Being broad — based and multi- disciplinary, the term biology is often replaced by the term life sciences or biological sciences. The term biology was coined by Lamarck.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free DOC. Download Free PDF. Cm Cs. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.
Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 16th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.
Certain research areas are interdisciplinary, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, which means that the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries physicalism emerged as a major unifying feature of the philosophy of science as physics provides fundamental explanations for every observed natural phenomenon.
New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences, while opening to new research areas in mathematics and philosophy. ChemistryChemistry the etymology of the word has been much disputed is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes. The science of matter is also addressed by physics, but while physics takes a more general and fundamental approach, chemistry is more specialized, being concerned with the composition, behavior or reaction , structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.
It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, and matter especially carbon based ; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the study of chemical processes using physical concepts such as thermodynamics and quantum mechanics;and analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure.
Many more specialized disciplines have emerged in recent years, e. Earth ScienceEarth science also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth it evolved to its current state.
EcologyEcology is the scientific study of the relationships that living organisms have with each other and with their abiotic environment. Topics of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount biomass , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems.
OceanograpgyOceanology, or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics;ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor;and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.
These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it: biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics as well as geography.
GeologyGeology is the science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change. Geology can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any celestial body such as the geology of the Moon or geology of Mars. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth, as it provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and past climates.
In modern times, geology is commercially important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation and for evaluating water resources. It is publicly important for the prediction and understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and for providing insights into past climate change.
Geology plays a role in geotechnical engineering and is a major academic discipline. MeteorologyMeteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere. Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw breakthroughs occur after observing networks developed across several countries.
After the development of the computer in the latter half of the 20th century, breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. Life ScienceLife science comprises the branches of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings. However, the study of behavior of organisms, such as practiced in ethology and psychology, is only included in as much as it involves a clearly biological aspect.
While biology remains the centerpiece of life science, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of specializations and new, often interdisciplinary, fields. Christiaan Huygens 14 April -8 July was a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist. He is known particularly as an astronomer, physicist, probabilist and horologist. Huygens was a leading scientist of his time.
His work included early telescopic studies of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investigations in timekeeping. He published major studies of mechanics and optics, and a pioneer work on games of chance. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev He is well known for his physical and moral courage, and keen sense of fairness, justice, honesty and integrity.
He spearheaded programs for reserved officers and integrees to gain merits and recognition in their military service. July 4, October 12, Most of his studies dealt with the polar processes and the detection of climate change in the polar regions. Amando F. KapauanComiso has developed techniques for using satellite data to obtain trends in the parameters of studying sea ice.
These data collected from his research have been useful in the analysis and evaluation of changes in the ice cover in both the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and provided scientists valuable information about the extent and scope of global warming during the last two decades. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win twice in multiple sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes.
Among other discoveries, he formulated the Dirac equation, which describes the behavior of fermions and predicted the existence of antimatter. He also did work that forms the basis of modern attempts to reconcile general relativity with quantum mechanics. His research led to the creation of Koch's postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the "gold standard" in medical microbiology.
As a result of his groundbreaking research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in He formulated the Periodic Law, created his own version of the periodic table of elements, and used it to correct the properties of some already discovered elements and also to predict the properties of eight elements yet to be discovered. He introduced, independently of George Zweig, the quark -constituents of allhadrons -having first identified the SU 3 flavor symmetry of hadrons.
This symmetry is now understood to underlie the light quarks, extending isospin to include strangeness, a quantum number which he also discovered. Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel 16 February -9 August was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coinedmany terms in biology,including anthropogeny, ecology,phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and the kingdom Protista.
Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the controversial recapitulation theory "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as manifestations of the same phenomenon.
Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics"after the first one realised by Isaac Newton. Archimedes of Syracuse BC -c. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Generally considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysisby applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including the area of acircle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, and the area under aparabola.
Other mathematical achievements include deriving an accurate approximation of pi, defining and investigating the spiral bearing his name, and creating a system using exponentiation for expressing very large numbers. He was also one of the first to apply mathematics to physical phenomena, foundinghydrostatics and statics, including an explanation of the principle of the lever.
He is credited with designing innovative machines, such as his screw pump,compound pulleys, and defensive war machines to protect his native Syracuse from invasion. July 13, -February 7, was Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in to , making him the first four-star general of the Philippines' armed forces.
Engineer turned soldier, General Alfredo M. Santos is one of the most notable "Freedom Fighters" of the Philippines with a heroic war record. His outstanding achievements proved his selfless dedication to the service of his country and people, thereby bringing distinct honor to the Armed Forces of the Philippines. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences.
The formal discipline of Earth sciences may include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth. Typicallybeing the only known life-bearing planet.
There are Earth scientists will use tools from physics, chemistry,biology, geography, chronology and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how attended New York University School of Medicine, later choosing to do medical research instead of becoming a practicing physician. He discovered and developed the first successful inactivated polio vaccine. Born in New York City to Jewish parents, he Filipino inventor and horticulturistbest known forinventing a way to induce more flowers in mango trees using ethrel and potassium nitrate.
Barba was proclaimed a National Scientist of the Philippines in June Paulo C. Campos July 7, -June 2, was a Filipino physician and community health care and his achievements in the field of nuclear medicine for which he was dubbed as "The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines".
Angel Alcal has more than thirty years of experience in tropical marine resource conservationa. Angel Alcala is considered a world class authority in ecology and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles, and is behind the invention of artifical coral reefs to be used for fisheries in Southeast Asia.
Francisco Fronda On December 22, , Dr. Francisco Fronda, the so-called "Father of Poultry Science in the Philippines" for his contributions in the improvement of methods of production of local poultry and livestock, was born in Aliaga, Nueva Ecija.
Hence, he earned the distinction of being one of the first five people in the world who had a doctorate in poultry science. Josefino C. He graduated magna cum laude from University of the Philippines, Diliman in , with a bachelor's degree in chemistry. He obtained his doctorate from theUniversity of Southern California in In the Ateneo de Manila University Department of Chemistry, he worked on inorganic and physical chemistry, particularly on radioactive bromine.
With other colleagues, he initiated investigations in the s on heavy metals analysis in our environment. He was among the first to look into the problem of mercury in the environment, and he designed the appropriate equipment for mercury analysis in water, fish and soil.
Hilario Lara has been recognized as the pioneer in Philippine public health research. He devoted over five decades of his life to the study and application of of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, prevention, and control of epidemics such as cholera, typhoid, fever, dysentery, measles, and diphtheria in the country. As acclaimed medical man, Dr. He also organized the first medical library in the country and established Community Health Demonstration Centers all over the country.
Daniel Dingel is a controversial Filipino en gineer who claims to have invented a "hydrogen reactor" -a device which he claims Sciences Directorate of the National. Related Papers. By Regeline Anatalio. Module 1 Physics Basic Science.
Search for:. Branches of Science. Learning Objective In this lesson we will learn about the five branches of science that are studied in high school. Learning Outcomes By the end of this lesson you will be able to:: Give a general description of the types of topics studied in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science and space science. Give some examples of scientific sub-disciplines as well as interdisciplinary sciences.
The branches of science , also referred to as sciences , "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines," are commonly divided into three major groups:. Natural and social sciences are empirical sciences, meaning that the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and must be capable of being verified by other researchers working under the same conditions. Natural, social, and formal science make up the fundamental sciences , which form the basis of interdisciplinary and applied sciences such as engineering and medicine. Specialized scientific disciplines that exist in multiple categories may include parts of other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminologies and expertises. The formal sciences are the branches of science that are concerned with formal systems , such as logic , mathematics , theoretical computer science , information theory , systems theory , decision theory , statistics.
Science from Latin scientia , meaning "knowledge" is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences e. There is disagreement, however, on the formal sciences being a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use science, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.
Сьюзан ничего не ответила. - Я вижу, ты выдающийся командный игрок. Может быть, можно взглянуть? - Он встал и начал обходить круг терминалов, двигаясь по направлению к. Сьюзан понимала, что сегодня любопытство Хейла может привести к большим неприятностям, поэтому быстро приняла решение. - Это диагностика, - сказала она, взяв на вооружение версию коммандера.
Еще одна игра слов мистера Танкадо: разница означает результат вычитания.
АНБ, - пошутил приятель, - означает Агентство, которого Никогда не Было. Со смешанным чувством тревоги и любопытства Беккер принял приглашение загадочного агентства. Он проехал тридцать семь миль до их штаб-квартиры, раскинувшейся на участке площадью тридцать шесть акров среди лесистых холмов Форт-Мида в штате Мэриленд.
Единственным освещением в шифровалке был разве что свет звезд над их головами, едва уловимое свечение проникало также сквозь разбитую стеклянную стену Третьего узла. Стратмор шагнул вперед, нащупывая ногой место, где начинались ступеньки узенькой лестницы. Переложив берет-ту в левую руку, правой он взялся за перила. Он прекрасно знал, что левой рукой стрелял так же плохо, как и правой, к тому же правая рука была ему нужна, чтобы поддерживать равновесие.
Халохот ударился сначала о внешнюю стену и только затем о ступени, после чего, кувыркаясь, полетел головой. Пистолет выпал из его рук и звонко ударился о камень. Халохот пролетел пять полных витков спирали и замер. До Апельсинового сада оставалось всего двенадцать ступенек.
Все складывалось совсем не так, как он рассчитывал. Теперь предстояло принять решение. Бросить все и ехать в аэропорт. Вопрос национальной безопасности.
Ты понимаешь, сколько стоит эта штука. Любое правительство выложит любые деньги. Можешь ли ты представить себе, как мы будем докладываем президенту, что перехватили сообщения иракцев, но не в состоянии их прочитать.
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