File Name: case study report on project monitoring and control .zip
If you are unfamiliar with how project controls are vital concerning the use of cloud-based project management software PM software , fear not: we are here to help you wrap your head around it. Thanks, PMBOK, we appreciate everything you do for us, but we need a little bit more clarification and maybe a couple examples. To begin with a simple explanation we will get into the details soon , project controls are the tools that help you save time and stay on schedule during your project planning and execution , cutting costs.
A case study applying process and project alignment methodology. The current problem is a lack of strategy to implement successfully these standards and models. To undertake this objective is essential observe real life experiences and detect process and project mutual relationships. Without this alignment it will not be possible to find out how process management is really important to achieve organization's strategic objectives.
This paper proposes a methodology that allows the definition, evaluation and improvement of an organization software development process. This proposal, called a Process and Project Alignment Methodology ProPAM , allows the specification of an organization development process, as well process and project alignment. ProPAM presents the following life cycle: 1 process definition; 2 project definition considering a base process model; 3 project coordination and monitoring and 4 process improvement assessment.
This paper also provides an overview of the action plan to be taken within the software organizations that intent to conduct a SPI initiative. This plan includes two distinct phases: 1 specify the development process and 2 analyze projects, starting an SPI effort. In order to evaluate ProPAM, a study case is undertaken. The case study is performed following the action plan and presents all the steps of the ProPAM. Final results show that, when the organization started using ProPAM, process and project alignment reduced project planning time and effort.
Organizational software process improvement SPI is a challenge to organizations to continually improve the quality and productivity of software and to keep up their competitiveness .
However, there has been limited success for many SPI efforts. Although organizations try to define their process improvement program and get a certification in traditional SPI approaches e. The agile software development manifesto contains a principle that supports this idea:"at regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordinglyl" .
SPI involves a series of small steps, where each change has to be introduced in the habits of the team members. Although all groups involved in a SPI initiative are important, project team members are the most important because they actually execute the process project and they are the central sources of input for a SPI program .
Project team members have an important role in planning, implementing and adapting process activities through a project. Process modeling community in general base the research work on the assumption that an explicit process representation is the starting point for process understanding, improvement and communication .
Other research communities, like the ones that study computer supported co-operative work CSCW , argue that software development is a creative work with strong co-operation aspects and does not benefit from static process descriptions.
So, process information must be combined dynamically with project specific information to create a detailed plan that includes information from all process disciplines with cost, schedule and quality requirements. Since project management is the discipline that controls and monitors deviations from the original project plan and also controls all of the activities from other process disciplines, it is the best way to detect changes in the project that can improve the process.
Considering the dependency between project plan and process elements, new SPI approaches have to consider process and project alignment and iterative SPI performed by project team members. Process and project alignment is defined as the degree to which the project goals and plans support and are supported by the process practices. Moreover, it involves a real match between process practices and projects activities, products and actors.
However, several modifications in a project can cause misalignments with the development process. These modifications can be management innovations or changes in the way the activities are executed. Furthermore, a modification may regard not only the considered activity, product or actor but it can also affect other elements having a dependence relation with the modified one.
Most recent trends show that the software process community is ready to accept many process modeling languages and also agree that graphical process modeling would help to alleviate process modeling for non language experts.
At same time, we also observe more emphasis on researches about SPI issues. Despite the great progress observed on software process research, process research has not had as much impact as expected on actual industrial software process enactment also known as project based on software process and further process improvement.
Since software processes are human-centered requiring interaction and cooperation, process modeling must also focus on interacting behaviors among actors, including the variety, uncertainty and creativity of the actors involved. Considering these foundations, project must not be seen as a simple instance of a development process.
Every project has unique characteristics and requirements that extend the knowledge process, process practices can only be used as a guide to create project plans. On the other hand, projects can help in ensuring process improvement once they are aligned with a base process. The contribution of this paper is to define not only the process, but also to propose a mechanism to process evolution based on the changing needs of the development organization.
This paper proposes a methodology - Process and Project Alignment Methodology ProPAM - based on process and project alignment to be applied during SPI projects for detecting misalignment between projects and supporting processes and identifying the process elements to be changed for restoring the alignment. This paper is organized in the following sections. Section 2 discusses literature on software process modeling, process and project management alignment and traditional and agile approaches to SPI.
Section 3 sketches architecture of the proposed framework to support process and project alignment in iterative traditional and agile SPI approaches. Section 4 presents the action plan presented to the enterprises to perform work join work. Section 5 describes our case study. Finally, Section 6 presents conclusions and future work. Current research on software development processes intends to define the process elements that constitute good practices, leaving implementation and enactment of the process to organizations.
However, these models are very descriptive in the sense that they explain essential attributes that would be expected to characterize an organization at a particular maturity level, but they don't specify neither how to improve nor the specific means to get into a particular maturity level. But, as discussed by the research community, also important is the way processes evolve with the changing needs of the development organization. In addition, projects must adopt the process with some level of detail for the organization.
Process modeling techniques are useful in defining the process, especially in the upper levels of maturity models like CMMI. Curtis, Kellner and Over discussed some approaches using process modeling to support process improvement, software project management and Process-centered software engineering environments PCSEEs . The Software Process Management System SPMS development identified and addressed the need for process models to be reusable, to support multiple views, to recognize process, product and human interactions to support process changes during development projects, and to support historical recording of the process over long periods of time .
In the domain of change management, the Problem Tracking System PTS is used to track errors and manage change request for the WIS Wohnungswirtschaftliche Information System , a system build in a process oriented way to support all business processes from the area of house constructing and administration .
The Endeavors system is a flexible environment that allows users to create and evolve processes while a project is in progress . Although Endeavors supports most of the features in process definition languages and modification of the process, some problems arise about process coordination and can lead to chaotic and disorganized development processes. The BORE tool and methodology extends the experience factory concept  through rule-based process tailoring, support for process modeling and enactment and case-based organizational learning facilities .
The AHEAD system also supports the management and modeling of development processes and provides an integrated set of tools for evolving both process definitions and projects . In  the authors concluded that a flexible as well as active, intelligent, adaptive and orchestrated groupware that manages concurrent access to shared work spaces is a desirable goal for future software process management systems.
Collaborative environments are important for effective SPI but workshops are essential to a faster dissemination of process practices. Traditional SPI methods and approaches are based on final projects retrospectives . Since this work is performed in finished projects, the any project improvement can only be applied in future projects.
There is a long time span between the problem identification and the validation of the new process. The improvement opportunities resulting from projects must be analyzed, controlled and validated prior to being disseminated in the organization practices. In agile principles , the project has reflections meetings in regular intervals. Our investigation work proposes a methodology that allows the definition, evaluation and improvement of an organization software development process.
This proposal, called a Process and Project Alignment Methodology ProPAM , allows a general vision on the current state of an organization development process, as well project alignment with the development process. Process and project alignment gives project team members more productivity, especially in project planning phase. Although process and project are different, they can be integrated as they are related and share some concepts . By aligning the process and the project, the project will be performed based on a specific process.
Additionally, keeping track on project execution, it is possible to detect changes in the project and propose improvements to the process considering these updates. ProPAM is based in a modeling approach since process and project modeling should be supported on a very high level of abstraction.
The proposed architecture identifies and interrelate the concepts necessary to provide SPI based on process and project management issues. This section describes the components features essential to process and project alignment. Process and project alignment formalization has four components:. As complement, process versioning allows to create process versions based on the proposed improvement to process;.
In the level M2, Software Process Engineering Meta-model SPEM is an OMG standard for "process specification, without specific models or constraints for any specific area or discipline, such as project management or analysisis".
The actual processes enactment, that is, project planning and executing level M0 , isn't in the scope of the SPEM. Considering that our goal is an iterative SPI approach with an emphasis on process and project management, SPEM isn't the right meta-model approach to the proposed methodology.
SPEM also address some concepts that are not essential in a project management perspective. A simplified meta-model with extension mechanism to integrate specific project management issues must be considered.
The next four subsections present the features of the four components of the ProPAM. A meta-model defines a language for describing a specific domain of interest. A process meta-model provides a set of generic concepts to describe any process, defined in the next level M1 of the layered architecture .
ProjectIT Process Meta-model PIT-ProcessM architecture defines the classes that correspond to elementary process concepts, allowing process creation or modification . Two complementary views show those static and dynamic process elements. In the static view are represented the concepts related to process Disciplines , like WorkProducts , Activities and Roles. Dynamic view of the meta-model is about how a process lifecycle is organized, e. Process patterns that are associated to different moments of a process should be considered in a temporal scale.
Additionally, all the process elements should be associated to a particular moment of a process lifecycle. Static View. An Activity represents the work performed by a Role. But an Activity can be decomposed in small work units, also called Activities to unlimited deep of nested work.
This concept is represented by the reflexive composed by aggregation. Control and data flow between Activities is defined by the reflexive preceded by association. Activities produce and consume WorkProducts , which can also be formed by a set of small WorkProducts. Activities are organized according to a common Disciplines. Dynamic View. The dynamic view identifies how process can be managed in terms of Phases and Iterations.
Phases are defined with the additional constraint of sequentiality, with a series of milestones spread over time and often assume minimal overlap of their activities in time. Each Phase include some Iterations , which are activities flows but with small goals.
Email: solutions altexsoft. Being an integral part of software engineering processes along with the business analysis and requirement specification, design, programming and testing, the project management has been a topic of considerable debate for years. In fact, the organizations using proven project management practices waste 28 less money and implement projects that are 2. Project management professionals conclude that the definition of a successful project is one that is not only completed on time and within budget, but one that also delivers expected benefits. Regardless of the scope, any project should follow a sequence of actions to be controlled and managed.
Problems arise in every organization. These problems and their alternative solutions establish some elements of change around which the organization must adapt. Projects are generally established to carry out these changes and someone is always responsible for each project's successful completion. Every project is unique in terms of the problems that arise, the priorities and resources assigned it, the environment in which it operates, and the project manager's attitude and style used to guide and control project activities. Therefore, the organizational structure for the project must be designed to fit within that project's operating constraints.
More complex tools such as earned-value management systems are often used in support of projects. Each of these tools has pluses and minuses about how they.
The most important function that facilitates construction organizations to accomplish profit maximization is cost control. Two critical aspects, including advancement of cost control framework and systematic participation of site personnel in cost control, were found to be the major differences. Interestingly, similar conditions were encountered in various countries such as Greece, Pakistan and Australia; hence suggestions from this study could be internationally useful. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback.
A case study applying process and project alignment methodology. The current problem is a lack of strategy to implement successfully these standards and models. To undertake this objective is essential observe real life experiences and detect process and project mutual relationships.
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Planning, controlling, monitoring progress are key management functions for effective implementation of construction projects. Commonly used instruments enabling performance of these functions include schedules and budgets, often in the form of a cost estimate. They are created at the initial planning stage to monitor and control cost and time deviations. Moreover, popular monitoring techniques are, for example, observation of milestones and comparative analysis of actual versus planned costs. This article presents a work progress control tool - the Earned Value Method EVM - which, despite its benefits, remains relatively unused in construction projects. The impact of the planning phase on the results obtained during the monitoring and control phase when utilizing EVM is discussed.
However, it is a method often overlooked and only done for the sake of fulfilling the requirements of a project management plan. But if put into practice, project monitoring can help project managers and their teams foresee potential risks and obstacles that if left unaddressed, could derail the project. It clarifies the objectives of the project, links the activities to the objectives, sets the target, reports the progress to the management and keeps the management aware of the problems which crop up during the implementation of the project. It supports and motivates the management to complete the project within the budget and on time. Project Monitoring refers to the process of keeping track of all project-related metrics including team performance and task duration, identifying potential problems and taking corrective actions necessary to ensure that the project is within scope, on budget and meets the specified deadlines. The process of project monitoring begins during the planning phase of the project.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book.
Project management is the process of leading the work of a team to achieve goals and meet success criteria at a specified time. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints.
This guide gives an overview of each area and describes key project monitoring techniques. Monitoring the project milestones involves Identifying the Critical Path activities and other major stages or decision points on the project and measuring progress against them. Milestones can be monitored using a table, features on a Gantt chart or by producing a milestone slip chart. Figure 1 is Gantt chart view in MS Project showing the project milestones. Monitoring of the schedule against pre-set limits or tolerances enables the level of corrective action to be appropriate to the extent of the deviation from the plan.
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