File Name: plant materials and trees in site planning .zip
Prune newly planted trees only as directed by Landscape Architect. Please refer to specific land category sections for more detailed requirements. Type "A" Detail shows the callouts by a legend with numbered For the convenience of some of our users, the City is posting the CAD files of all of our Standard Plans for the edition.
Selecting and placing plants in the landscape is the art and science of arranging plant material to make a healthy, functional, and beautiful yard. The mix of science and art is expressed in the guiding principle of "right plant, right place," meaning to select plants that can thrive in the growing conditions of the site and locating them for both visual appeal and health.
Selecting and arranging plants are the last steps in the overall design process after the site analysis is complete and the activity areas located and designed. Developing the planting plan is a sequential process, but it is important to remember that the process is not completely linear; sometimes decisions about plant material require reworking previous steps in the sequence and making adjustments to the plan. The process begins with developing a functional plan that shows the general concept for the landscape.
Developing a conceptual plan that shows the proposed general layout of the plant material is the first step in the process. The conceptual plan is based on the site analysis and the needs of the person or family using the space. This ensures that the plan is based on the site conditions and the desired function of the plants.
Figure 1 is a conceptual plan that shows the location of plant material with functional notes to create shade and privacy, control views, hide unsightly utilities, and draw attention to the front entry as a focal point.
The labels that describe the function of the planted areas guide the selection of plants to best serve the function, such as wide canopy trees for shade and interesting and colorful plants for the focal point. Figure 1. Click image to enlarge. Creating a master list of possible plant materials for use in the planting plan is the second step in the process. The first consideration is to choose the right plants for the site conditions.
Refer to the site analysis to determine the growing conditions in each area of the yard and match plant choices to those conditions.
Remember to consider light requirements sun or shade for each plant as well as soil and water requirements. Once growing requirements are satisfied, consider the visual characteristics of each plant as you create the list. Don't forget the existing plants in the landscape. Depending on the health of the existing plants and the new layout for activity spaces, some of the existing plants may need to be removed or relocated. Any healthy existing vegetation that can be used with the new plan should be considered for saving, and all old, unhealthy, or overgrown plants and invasive exotics should be removed.
Consider relocating plants that may not be at their best but would benefit from a better location. Mature trees are the most important existing vegetation.
Decide which trees you would like to keep and try to work the planting plan around them. Mature, healthy trees add value to your property and beauty and function to your yard. Trees with large shade canopies help cool the home and reduce the need for air conditioning. Trees also influence the type of plants and turfgrass appropriate for shady conditions. If you are unsure about keeping trees, consult an arborist to determine the health and projected longevity of the tree.
If trees could present a problem in the future because of location or size, it is best to remove them while they are small. Start the master plant list with familiar plants that you know thrive in the area.
Observe landscapes in your neighborhood or community and learn about the plants you would like to use in your yard. When selecting plants, make sure they are locally available. Consult several sources for information on the growth habits and requirements of the plants. Additional information about plant selection is available from your local county Extension office www. Make sure to choose plants appropriate for the USDA Hardiness Zone, soil pH, and moisture and light conditions noted on the site inventory and analysis.
Additional information can include the mature height and spread, seasonal changes, and the bloom period. This information is useful when arranging plants for aesthetic appeal. Group the plants on your list based on type and function, such as trees structural or focal , shrubs structural , and groundcover massing. List a reasonable number of proposed plants in different sizes.
The goal is to have a good selection without being overwhelmed by the variety of choices Table 1. Table 1 is an example of a partial plant list with plant characteristics for easy reference when selecting final plant choices. Preliminary plans show the proposed layout of the individual plant material. The quick sketches are used to explore different layouts and arrangements to get a rough idea of the size constraints and best locations for plants.
Several preliminary plans are often used to create one final plan, taking the best ideas from each plan. Use simple circles and free-form lines to indicate plant material location and size. Color palettes can also be tested by using colored pencils to draw the plants Figure 2.
Figure 2. Preliminary plan that shows plant beds, tree locations, and color combinations. Use the preliminary plan to start developing plant beds on the base map where plant material will be located, typically around buildings, on the edges of sidewalks and driveways, along fence and property boundaries, and around features in the landscape, such as pools and patios. Plant beds are traditionally curvilinear and follow the form of the building, driveway, or walkways.
The meandering bedline typically undulates to create deep and shallow beds for a natural look Figure 3. General rules for drawing bedlines for plant beds include the following:.
Create dramatic, sweeping curves when drawing on the paper. Shallow curves on paper tend to look like straight lines when standing in the yard and viewing the plant bed.
Shallow beds are typically used on the side of the building where property lines constrain the depth of the bed. Use the shape of the building and the hard surfaces to guide the location of the bedline. Draw a wide arc on the corners of buildings, walkways, and patios to provide enough room for larger plants.
Note that plant bed depth typically ranges from 5 feet for a shallow bed to 30 feet for deep beds. Note that plant beds that originate at a building or hardscape edge should begin perpendicular to the straight edge before beginning the curve. Locate plant beds under trees just inside the drip line the outside edge of the tree canopy of the tree for aesthetic and protection purposes.
Use floating plant beds beds not connected to a building or walkway to create spaces and locate structural plants, such as large trees, in the yard. Create "spaces" by using bedlines to define the edge of open sod or mulch areas. These open areas or voids in the landscape are used for recreation and entertaining or as a simple open foreground area that highlights the more complex plants in the background.
Figure 3. Bedlines with a curvilinear form flow around the building corners and walkway. Once the plant beds have been defined, they need to be filled with plants. There is a logical order to placing the plants, depending on the type of plant and the role it plays in the landscape.
Large plants, such as trees, which separate spaces by creating implied walls, are called structural plants because they provide structure in the yard. They are also long lived and permanent through the seasons, so they add stability to the garden. These are the first plants to be located on the plan. Focal or anchor plants are located next. These are plants that are strategically located to create emphasis, attract attention, or provide an anchor in the various plant beds.
The last plants to be placed are the massing plants, which fill in the plant beds and make up the majority of the plants in the beds. Structural plants are large trees and shrubs. The trunks of the trees act as implied walls to separate the activity areas of the yard or to create a screen along the property line Figure 4. Trees also provide enclosure overhead with branches and canopies to give a space human scale.
There are several guidelines to follow when locating trees:. Make sure the size of the mature trees and shrubs is proportional to the building and the overall size of the site. Tall buildings and large sites need tall and large trees for balance. Give the trees and shrubs room to grow. Don't locate them too close to buildings and sidewalks or patios. Locate trees to provide shade over the air conditioner and help conserve energy by blocking sun on the east and west sides of the building.
Locate plants to avoid power lines and underground utilities, such as water lines and septic systems. Figure 4. Locate trees to create shade, block or frame views, and create spaces. They are considered both focal and anchor plants because they can serve as a focal point and an anchor for plant beds.
Anchor plants are sometimes called "theme plants" because they most often establish the design theme for the yard. Focal plants are characterized by an unusual shape, color, or texture that contrasts with other plants. Focal plants attract attention to a particular area of the yard or, through careful location, lead the eye around the yard Figure 5. Anchor plants provide unity through repetition in the plant beds. Locate plants in view of natural sight lines, such as the end of a walkway or the view from a window or door, a patio, or the sidewalk and street.
Limit the use of focal points. Too many can cause confusion about where to focus attention and make the eye jump around the space. Use other elements with the plants for the greatest contrast. Brightly colored ceramic pots are a good choice. Use structures and features such as trellises, sculptures, and birdhouses among plants as focal points.
Create a focal point with a nice composition of colorful plants. Grouping colorful plants at the front door is a good example. Figure 5. Massing plants are the medium and small shrubs and groundcover that fill out the plant beds.
Selecting and placing plants in the landscape is the art and science of arranging plant material to make a healthy, functional, and beautiful yard. The mix of science and art is expressed in the guiding principle of "right plant, right place," meaning to select plants that can thrive in the growing conditions of the site and locating them for both visual appeal and health. Selecting and arranging plants are the last steps in the overall design process after the site analysis is complete and the activity areas located and designed. Developing the planting plan is a sequential process, but it is important to remember that the process is not completely linear; sometimes decisions about plant material require reworking previous steps in the sequence and making adjustments to the plan. The process begins with developing a functional plan that shows the general concept for the landscape. Developing a conceptual plan that shows the proposed general layout of the plant material is the first step in the process. The conceptual plan is based on the site analysis and the needs of the person or family using the space.
Very easy and an important source of early nectar. However, some exotic plants are invasive such as the plants listed in this guide and can become established in natural habitats, outcompeting native species and overwhelming certain habitats. Hyacinthoides non-scripta is typically a woodland plant, occurring in calcareous and mildly acid woodlands of all types except the very wettest Rodwell a. Get all the details of plant species found in our woodland, with image galleries of native trees, shrubs, ferns, climbers and herbs, as well as the exotic species naturalised in the Cumberland Plain Woodland. Being woodland plants, trilliums want ground rich in humus and leaf litter which never dries out.
Landscape material greatly enhances the attractiveness and appeal of commercial and residential developments, contributes to community character, and provides environmental benefits. Trees, shrubs and groundcovers provide many benefits, including:. A tree that is currently located or proposed for planting along streets, highways, or parking lots. Such trees can be located on private property or on publicly-owned land. When planning a streetscape, parking lot, or buffer area that is to include plant material, several factors should be considered when selecting plant species, including:. Plantings should always be located outside the clear sight triangle and should be several feet from the edge of the curb to allow for the openings of vehicle doors and free movement of passing vehicles. Drivers must be able to see between vegetation therefore plantings within or near the clear sight triangle should be trimmed to 2.
uncultivated areas, encouraging the use of site specific plant materials, and establishing Continuous plan coverage consisting of grass species suited to growth in the Transportation's Manual of Uniform Minimum Standards for Design.
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Это Испания. Если вы по глупости упадете, то это будет ваша личная глупость, кто бы ни придумал эти ступени. Халохот остановился у одного из окон, расположенных на уровне его плеча, и посмотрел на улицу.
Хейл, сидя на плите и действуя вытянутыми ногами как тараном, сорвал решетчатую дверь с петель, ворвался в комнату и теперь приближался к ней большими прыжками. Сьюзан швырнула ему под ноги настольную лампу, но Хейл легко преодолел это препятствие. Он был уже совсем. Правой рукой, точно железной клешней, он обхватил ее за талию так сильно, что она вскрикнула от боли, а левой сдавил ей грудную клетку.
Я возьму на себя лабораторию систем безопасности, - сказал Стратмор. - Всю статистику по работе ТРАНСТЕКСТА, все данные о мутациях. Ты займешься Третьим узлом.
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