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Ac Motor Control And Electric Vehicle Applications Pdf

ac motor control and electric vehicle applications pdf

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An electric vehicle EV is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels , fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.

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Thermal Management of Electrified Propulsion System for Low-Carbon Vehicles

An electric vehicle EV is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels , fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity.

EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types.

Commonly, the term EV is used to refer to an electric car. In the 21st century, EVs have seen a resurgence due to technological developments, and an increased focus on renewable energy and the potential reduction of transportation's impact on climate change and other environmental issues. Project Drawdown describes electric vehicles as one of the best contemporary solutions for addressing climate change.

Government incentives to increase adoption were first introduced in the late s, including in the United States and the European Union , leading to a growing market for the vehicles in the s. In England a patent was granted in for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in The first mass-produced electric vehicles appeared in America in the early s.

In , the Studebaker Automobile Company entered the automotive business with electric vehicles, though it also entered the gasoline vehicles market in However, with the advent of cheap assembly line cars by Ford, the popularity of electric cars declined significantly. Due to the limitations of storage batteries at that time, electric cars did not gain much popularity; however, electric trains gained immense popularity due to their economies and achievable speeds.

By the 20th century, electric rail transport became commonplace due to advances in the development of electric locomotives. Over time their general-purpose commercial use reduced to specialist roles as platform trucks , forklift trucks , ambulances, [11] tow tractors and urban delivery vehicles, such as the iconic British milk float ; for most of the 20th century, the UK was the world's largest user of electric road vehicles. Electrified trains were used for coal transport, as the motors did not use precious oxygen in the mines.

Switzerland 's lack of natural fossil resources forced the rapid electrification of their rail network. EVs were among the earliest automobiles, and before the preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines , electric automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early s.

They were produced by Baker Electric , Columbia Electric , Detroit Electric , and others, and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered vehicles. In , 28 percent of the cars on the road in the US were electric. A number of developments contributed to a decline in the popularity of electric cars. As roads were improved outside urban areas, electric vehicle range could not compete with the ICE. Finally, the initiation of mass production of gasoline-powered vehicles by Henry Ford in reduced significantly the cost of gasoline cars as compared to electric cars.

In the s, National City Lines , which was a partnership of General Motors , Firestone , and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tram networks across the country to dismantle them and replace them with GM buses. The partnership was convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of equipment and supplies to their subsidiary companies, but were acquitted of conspiring to monopolize the provision of transportation services.

The emergence of metal—oxide—semiconductor MOS technology led to the development of modern electric road vehicles. MOSFET power converters allowed operation at much higher switching frequencies, made it easier to drive, reduced power losses, and significantly reduced prices, while single-chip microcontrollers could manage all aspects of the drive control and had the capacity for battery management.

Insulated-gate bipolar transistor IGBT technology made possible the use of the synchronous AC three phase motor , by creating a synthetic three phase alternating current from, for example, a DC traction battery pack. This technique was developed by Hughes and GM and used in their US Electricar in , but still used the heavy 26 count 12 Volt lead acid, series connected batteries. GM later developed an electric pickup truck and then the EV1.

This motor and controller was kept alive and used in converted cars by AC Propulsion, where they introduced the lithium battery and later Elon Musk saw and embraced. From to GM produced EV1s , of which were made available through three-year leases. The discontinuation has variously been attributed to:. A movie made on the subject in — was titled Who Killed the Electric Car? The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers , oil industry , the U.

Ford released a number of their Ford Ecostar delivery vans into the market. After public protests, Toyota sold of its RAV EVs ; they later sold at over their original forty-thousand-dollar price.

During the last few decades, environmental impact of the petroleum-based transportation infrastructure, along with the fear of peak oil , has led to renewed interest in an electric transportation infrastructure. The carbon footprint and other emissions of electric vehicles varies depending on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation.

Vehicles making use of engines working on the principle of combustion can usually only derive their energy from a single or a few sources, usually non-renewable fossil fuels. A key advantage of hybrid or plug-in electric vehicles is regenerative braking , which recovers kinetic energy, typically lost during friction braking as heat, as electricity restored to the on-board battery.

As of early December , the Leaf, with , units sold worldwide, was the world's top-selling highway-capable all-electric car of all time, followed by the Tesla Model S with global deliveries of about , units. Norway is the country with the highest market penetration per capita in the world, with four plug-in electric vehicles per inhabitants in There are many ways to generate electricity, of varying costs, efficiency and ecological desirability.

For especially large EVs, such as submarines , the chemical energy of the diesel—electric can be replaced by a nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor usually provides heat, which drives a steam turbine , which drives a generator, which is then fed to the propulsion. See Nuclear marine propulsion.

A few experimental vehicles, such as some cars and a handful of aircraft use solar panels for electricity. These systems are powered from an external generator plant nearly always when stationary , and then disconnected before motion occurs, and the electricity is stored in the vehicle until needed. Batteries, electric double-layer capacitors and flywheel energy storage are forms of rechargeable on-board electricity storage systems. By avoiding an intermediate mechanical step, the energy conversion efficiency can be improved compared to hybrids by avoiding unnecessary energy conversions.

Furthermore, electro-chemical batteries conversions are easy to reverse, allowing electrical energy to be stored in chemical form. Lithium ion batteries have higher energy density , longer life span and higher power density than most other practical batteries. Complicating factors include safety, durability, thermal breakdown and cost.

Li-ion batteries should be used within safe temperature and voltage ranges in order to operate safely and efficiently. Increasing the battery's lifespan decreases effective costs.

One technique is to operate a subset of the battery cells at a time and switching these subsets. In the past, nickel—metal hydride battery batteries were used in some electric cars, such as those made by General Motors.

The prices of lithium-ion batteries are constantly decreasing, contributing to a reduction in price for electric vehicles. The power of a vehicle's electric motor, as in other vehicles, is measured in kilowatts kW. Energy is lost during the process of converting the electrical energy to mechanical energy. For electric trains, forklift trucks , and some electric cars, DC motors are often used.

In some cases, universal motors are used, and then AC or DC may be employed. In recent production vehicles, various motor types have been implemented; for instance, induction motors within Tesla Motor vehicles and permanent magnet machines in the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Bolt. A pure-electric vehicle or all-electric vehicle is powered exclusively through electric motors. The electricity may come from a battery battery electric vehicle , solar panel solar vehicle or fuel cell fuel cell vehicle.

A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional powertrain usually an internal combustion engine with an electric engine. The Prius nameplate has sold more than 5. A plug-in electric vehicle PEV is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from any external source of electricity, such as wall sockets , and the electricity stored in the Rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels. PEV is a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes battery electric vehicles BEVs , plug-in hybrid vehicles, PHEVs , and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.

Cumulative global sales of highway-capable light-duty pure electric vehicles passed one million units in total, globally, in September A range-extended electric vehicle REV is a vehicle powered by an electric motor and a plug-in battery.

An auxiliary combustion engine is used only to supplement battery charging and not as the primary source of power. On-road electric vehicles include electric cars, electric trolleybuses, electric buses , battery electric buses , electric trucks , electric bicycles , electric motorcycles and scooters , personal transporters , neighborhood electric vehicles , golf carts , milk floats , and forklifts. Off-road vehicles include electrified all-terrain vehicles and tractors. The fixed nature of a rail line makes it relatively easy to power EVs through permanent overhead lines or electrified third rails , eliminating the need for heavy onboard batteries.

Electric locomotives , electric multiple units , electric trams also called streetcars or trolleys , electric light rail systems , and electric rapid transit are all in common use today, especially in Europe and Asia. Since electric trains do not need to carry a heavy internal combustion engine or large batteries, they can have very good power-to-weight ratios. In addition, they have higher short-term surge power for fast acceleration, and using regenerative brakes can put braking power back into the electrical grid rather than wasting it.

Maglev trains are also nearly always EVs. There are also battery electric passenger trains operating on non-electrified rail lines. Manned and unmanned vehicles have been used to explore the Moon and other planets in the solar system.

On the last three missions of the Apollo program in and , astronauts drove silver-oxide battery -powered Lunar Roving Vehicles distances up to Since the beginnings of aviation, electric power for aircraft has received a great deal of experimentation. Electric boats were popular around the turn of the 20th century. Interest in quiet and potentially renewable marine transportation has steadily increased since the late 20th century, as solar cells have given motorboats the infinite range of sailboats.

Electric motors can and have also been used in sailboats instead of traditional diesel engines. Electric power has a long history of use in spacecraft. Current methods of propelling a spacecraft with electricity include the arcjet rocket , the electrostatic ion thruster , the Hall effect thruster , and Field Emission Electric Propulsion.

A number of other methods have been proposed , with varying levels of feasibility. Most large electric transport systems are powered by stationary sources of electricity that are directly connected to the vehicles through wires.

Electric traction allows the use of regenerative braking , in which the motors are used as brakes and become generators that transform the motion of, usually, a train into electrical power that is then fed back into the lines. This system is particularly advantageous in mountainous operations, as descending vehicles can produce a large portion of the power required for those ascending. This regenerative system is only viable if the system is large enough to utilise the power generated by descending vehicles.

In the systems above, motion is provided by a rotary electric motor. However, it is possible to "unroll" the motor to drive directly against a special matched track. These linear motors are used in maglev trains which float above the rails supported by magnetic levitation. This allows for almost no rolling resistance of the vehicle and no mechanical wear and tear of the train or track. In addition to the high-performance control systems needed, switching and curving of the tracks becomes difficult with linear motors, which to date has restricted their operations to high-speed point to point services.

Application and Control of Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

Brushless DC motor has simple structure, great power density, torque output and high efficiency. It has a broad application prospect for electric vehicle. The conventional scheme of BLDCM drive system adopts motor ontology, power drive circuits and position sensor. Due to its structure and commutation strategy, it has many problems to be solved if works on electric vehicle. The basic operating principle of Brushless DC motor and the basic power drive system was discussed.

To meet HEV's fast torque response, vector control algorithm based on rotor flux-oriented and simulation model is concerned and modular designs for controller's hardware and software are presented in the paper in order to build a platform to achieve the vector control of asynchronous induction motor. Analyze the controller's electromagnetic compatibility, introduce the corresponding antijamming measures to assure the normal operation of the electromagnetic sensitive devices such as CAN bus; experiment proves that the measure is practical and feasible. On the basis of the control logic correct, such as improving CAN bus communication reliability, assuring power-on sequence and fault treatment, carry on the motor bench experiment, test its static properties, and adjust the controller parameters. The experimental results show that the designed driving system has the performance of low speed and high torque, a wide range of variable speed and high comprehensive efficiency. Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV is the vehicle with two or more power supplies one of these is electrical energy [ 1 , 2 ], such as unit of internal combustion engine and secondary cell or unit of fuel cell and secondary cell. At present, developing HEV research is one of the most meaningful ways to solve the problems of pollution and energy. Currently, the control methods of AC asynchronous induction motor in HEV are mainly two kinds of direct torque control and vector control [ 6 ].

Within an electric drivetrain, the inverter controls the electric motor. This is a key component in the car as, similar to the Engine Management System EMS of combustion vehicles, it determines driving behavior. Regardless of whether the motor is synchronous, asynchronous or brushless DC, the inverter always functions in a similar way and is controlled by an integrated PCB, which should be designed to minimize switching losses and maximize thermal efficiency. Not only does the inverter drive the electric motor, it also captures energy released through regenerative breaking and feeds this back to the battery. As a result, the range of the vehicle is directly related to the efficiency of the traction inverter. F-RAM for Automotive markets provides fast writes at full interface speed. F-RAM does not have any write delays and data is instantly nonvolatile.

AC Motor Control and Electrical Vehicle Applications provides a guide to the control of AC motors with a focus on its application to electric vehicles (EV). It.

AC Motor Control and Electrical Vehicle Applications Second Edition by Kwang Hee Nam

An overview of current thermal challenges in transport electrification is introduced in order to underpin the research developments and trends of recent thermal management techniques. Currently, explorations of intelligent thermal management and control strategies prevail among car manufacturers in the context of climate change and global warming impacts. Therefore, major cutting-edge systematic approaches in electrified powertrain are summarized in the first place.

This platform has been designed to help you to achieve your business goals. We will provide end-to-end support from prototyping to production-grade projects related to the Electric Vehicle EV product development. Speed control, torque control and Field weakening features to achieve higher speed.

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft. There are two main groups of electrical motors: DC and AC motors. Electric motor control Application Note 3 V1.

Kwang Hee Nam received his B.

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AC Motor Control and Electrical Vehicle Applications Second Edition by Kwang Hee Nam


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  4. Antoine C.

    04.05.2021 at 07:18

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