File Name: strengths and weaknesses of modernization theory .zip
In: Social Issues. Aaron A. Condorcet was the first to make the connection between economic and social development connection and that there can be continuous progress and improvement in human affairs.
Modernization theory claimed that once developing societies came into contact with western European and North American societies, they would be impelled toward modernization and, eventually, would achieve the economic, political, and social features characteristic of the nations of western Europe and the United States. However, by the s it was apparent that the Third World was not passing through a stage of underdevelopment, as envisioned by modernization theory, but remaining underdeveloped. Thus, a counterclaim was advanced—that developing countries today are structurally different from the advanced countries and so will have to develop along different lines. These structures created a dynamic that was continuing to impoverish former colonies and to thwart their modernization. According to ECLA, the international division of labour created by colonization had separated the international economy into a centre, consisting of the industrialized countries, and a periphery , which included all the rest of the countries around the world outside of the socialist camp.
By the end of the Second World War many of the countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America had failed to develop and remained poor, despite exposure to capitalism. There was concern amongst the leaders of the western developed countries, especially the United States, that communism might spread into many of these countries, potentially harming American business interests abroad and diminishing U. In this context, in the late s, modernisation theory was developed, which aimed to provide a specifically non-communist solution to poverty in the developing world — Its aim was to spread a specifically industrialised, capitalist model of development through the promotion of Western, democratic values. There are two main aspects of modernisation theory — 1 its explanation of why poor countries are underdeveloped, and 2 its proposed solution to underdevelopment. In order to develop, less developed countries basically needed to adopt a similar path to development to the West. They needed to adopt Western cultural values and industrialise in order to promote economic growth. In order to do this they would need help from Western governments and companies, in the form of aid and investment.
Introduction to the Sociology of Development pp Cite as. In the preceding chapter we considered the theory that global modernisation could be explained primarily in terms of the development of certain values, norms and motivations — such as the drive for high achievement. Among those who cultivate such modernising attitudes, it is claimed, are the entrepreneurs of the business world who use the monetary surplus accumulated through wise and steady investment to expand industry and so generate more investable surplus for further expansion. We saw that this theory has serious weaknesses in terms of lacking supporting evidence and analytical strength. In particular, we concluded that it does not have any conception of the inequalities of power and class conflict that for many social scientists are an important and for some the most important factor influencing the pattern of social change and development. While modernisation theory has its origins in the Durkheimian and Weberian explanations of industrialisation, those who regard class conflict as a central dynamic of historical change trace their ideas back to the nineteenth century work of Karl Marx.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or ' traditional ' to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber — , which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons —
Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you. Development refers to the process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage especially a more advanced or mature stage. Again, development in relation to economy is the shift from low and labour intensive productivity to high production and technology intensive activities.
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A macro-theory with historical, economic and sociological inspiration, modernisation theory seeks to establish how different societies progress, which variables affect this progress, and the effects of societal progress on human communication. Furthermore, many theorists in the field have examined how modernisation processes, especially economic growth, relate to democratisation and democratic consolidation Huntington
The purpose of the article is to characterize selected theoretical and methodological advantages, controversies, and limitations of the varieties of capitalism VoC approach in application to Central and Eastern European CEE countries. It indicates the reasons for the usefulness of such an approach for the study of postcommunist capitalism in the region. After a decade of reforms, due to different trajectories of development in the countries of the region, such interpretations lose their explanatory power. Other ways of analyzing transformations in CEE have become needed. The need for new theoretical inspirations has also been strengthened by the European Union EU accession of the same postcommunist countries. The accession has generated a search for a new language of description and analyses of institutional changes in all the countries of the enlarged Union. The key advantages of the VoC approach are presented, which made these perspectives influential among researchers of institutional changes in postcommunist countries.
Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. In the words of one of the major proponents, "Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents" Eisenstadt , p. Modernization theory has been one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the s. Primary attention has focused on ways in which past and present premodern societies become modern i.
The events leading up to the Second World War and the war itself had a profound impact on political and economic structures. The main impact was the emergence of a bi-polar world order, with the rise of a communist power, the USSR, on the one side and the United States as leader of the liberal capitalist system on the other. The US had emerged from the war as the strongest economy, enjoying rapid growth and capital accumulation and saw itself as leader of the emerging monetary and economic system in the capitalist world. A major early objective of the US was to assist Europe's recovery and lay the foundations of a new economic and political order, while containing the spread of communism in Western Europe. It was felt that institutions were needed that were able to create functioning, liberal market economies and order the economic, social, and political development in a post-war world.
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